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Abstract: Bed load transport is the movement of particles along the top of a bedthrough rolling, saltation, and suspension created by turbulent lift above thebed surface. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in theidea that bed load transport is significant for proppant transport duringhydraulic fracturing. However, scaling arguments suggest that bed loadtransport is only dominant in the laboratory and is negligible at the fieldscale. I review laboratory experiments that have been used to develop conceptsof bed load transport in hydraulic fracturing. I also review the scalingarguments and laboratory results that have been used to argue that viscousdrag, not bed load transport, is dominant at the field scale. I compareliterature correlations for fluvial sediment transport and for pipeline slurrytransport with published laboratory data on proppant transport in slot flow.The comparisons indicate that fluvial transport correlations are suitable forpredicting the rate of sediment erosion due to flow of proppant-free fluid overa bed. The pipeline slurry correlations are suitable for predicting the abilityof proppant that is already in suspension to flow in bed transport withoutsettling, but only if the aspect ratio of the flowing region in the slot isclose to unity. This can occur at the laboratory scale, but not in the field.The comparison indicates that at low rates of proppant flow, the equilibriumbed height in a laboratory proppant transport experiment can be predicted frompipeline slurry correlations. However, as the volumetric flow rate and theaspect ratio of the flowing region in the slot increase, the applicability ofthe pipeline slurry correlations breaks down. Laboratory experiments usinghigher volumetric flow rate indicate that bed load transport rates are too lowto be significant at the field scale, even if the flow velocity is very high.
Submission historyFrom: Mark McClure [view email]
[v1]Sat, 12 Nov 2016 17:11:08 UTC (990 KB)
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Author: Andrew Nikiforuk
Publisher: Greystone Books
Category: Biography & Autobiography
View: 796DOWNLOAD NOW
The fossil fuel industry and many environmental groups tout hydraulic fracturing — “fracking” — as a panacea, with slick promises of energy independence, greenhouse gas reductions, and benefits to local economies. Yet the controversial technology, which blasts massive volumes of fluids, sand, and chemicals into rock and coal formations, has sparked huge public protests. Slick Water tells the shocking, inspiring story of one woman’s stand to hold government and industry accountable for the damage fracking leaves in its wake. After energy giant Encana secretly fracked hundreds of gas wells around her home and her well water turned to a flammable broth, Jessica Ernst started asking questions. When she put forward evidence that Encana had violated laws by fracturing the community's drinking water aquifer, Ernst was falsely tagged as a bomb-making terrorist and visited by the government’s anti-terrorism squad. Frightened but undaunted, she uncovered a startling history of liability, fraud, and intimidation, along with a willful denial of widespread groundwater contamination. Jessica Ernst’s remarkable story raises dramatic questions about the role of Big Oil in government, society’s obsession with rapidly depleting supplies of unconventional oil and gas, and the future of civil society.