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The Greedy Hand PDF Free Download
PITMAN ENGLISH SHORTHAND Strokes with attachments Wel, Hwel and Hway are the only instances of a hook adding a sound BEFORE that of the main stroke, all other hooks add a sound after. It helps to think of the strokes below that have such permanent 'attachments' as complete strokes in their own right, otherwise confusion may result when learning the R, L, F/V and N hooks. The reason they have attachments is that, as the system developed in its early days, more strokes were required than were available from the straight lines at various angles and segments of a circle. Therefore various unused combinations were made use of, e.g. Ray was given initial hooks to make Way and Yay, which were originally shown by the small semi-circle and the downstrokes that we now use for Rer and Ler; the combination S-CHR, not occurring in English, was used instead for downward Hay, the H sound originally being represented by only the aspirate dot and the upstroke that is now used for Yay. Stroke
Name Direction Angle from Notes Vertical
Sound also represented by
Emp-Emb thickening of Em
Emp-Emb thickening of Em

Halving; doubling for '-ture'

Chay Down
Horizontal 0
Part of the con/com dot Large initial hook for Kway
Horizontal 0 Large initial hook for Gway
Down version for better joins and can be reduced to a downward tick before some strokes
Aspirate dot
Upward Hay is most frequently Aspirate dot used
The Way vowel sign, Sway circle Large initial hook for Hway
Sometimes U diphthong within a word Hay, Way, Whay, Yay:
Use 30% angle if a full downstroke follows, in order to keep the base of the 2nd stroke level with it Ell
Sometimes down for better joinings. Sometimes choice is made for vowel indication.
Small initial hook
Initial hook
on upward Ell makes Wel
Large initial hook on upward Ell makes Hwel
Downward Ell thicken for Ler
Downward Ell halve and thicken for Ld Ar
Vowel before it; exceptions Final part of doubling apply to obtain better joinings.
Thicken for Rer
Halve and thicken for Rd Ray
No vowel before it; exceptions Initial hook apply to obtain better joinings.
Use 30% angle if a full downstroke follows, in order to keep the base of the 2nd stroke level with it Ef
Final hook
Final hook

Thee Down

Doubling for '-ther'

Circle S, SES and Sway

Circle S, SES
Sometimes upwards for better Part of the Shun hook joinings.
Sher is always downwards Shel is always upwards Zhee Down
Always down – no thick stroke Part of the Shun hook ever goes up. This is the sound in 'measure'
Horizontal 90° Thicken for Imp or Imb
Halve and thicken for Md En
Horizontal 90°
Final hook. Initial hook for 'instr' Halve and thicken for Nd
Horizontal 90°
This is a single sound. Derivative words may retain separate En and Gay, where the resemblance to 'ing' is coincidental.
The 'ing' dot and the 'ings' dash
Top of page
Additional vowel
Vowel plus one = diphone
THAT bat
PEN bet
IS bit
NOT tock
MUCH tuck
GOOD took
PA pa
MAY pay payer
pea previous
ALL saw
GO so
TOO sue
bluer Diphthong plus one = triphone
I by
LOUD out
Top of page
SHORT AND LONG VOWELS Short vowels = light dot or dash Mnemonic: THAT PEN IS NOT MUCH GOOD Long vowels = heavy dot or dash Mnemonic: PA MAY WE ALL GO TOO The mnemonics contain short forms so those particular outlines cannot be used to illustrate all the vowels, but the simplicity of the sentences has served generations of shorthanders very well over the years and they are worth preserving as our 'shorthand heritage'. The dashes are written at 90° to straight strokes, therefore they change their angle as the stroke changes its angle. The dash is generally written from the stroke outwards and about a quarter of the length of a normal stroke; a dash should not be written straight up or straight backwards, in order to maintain smooth writing and avoiding catching the nib against the paper. Against horizontal strokes the dash is always written downwards. For curved strokes, the angle of 90° changes along the length of the stroke. The angle of a dash vowel is therefore not meaningful when used in an outline, but is only meaningful when used alone as a short form – See Short Forms List 4 page Short forms from vowel marks:
toe gnaw know noose maw mow moon bought Some dash vowels end up being written with an upward slant and this is the only time that any thick mark is written upwards, as in the outline 'bought' above. The angle of the dash may be adjusted slightly in places where there is limited room between strokes:
droll dhurrie roach Heavy dots and dashes must be written with one stroke of the pen, not moved around on to thicken them up. Students of phonetics will notice that in Queen's English 'pay' 'sew' and similar words are not simple vowels but diphthongs, despite all the shorthand books describing them otherwise. They and the diphthongs below are, however, single phonemes (meaningful units of sound) in English, and generally found within one syllable, which is why they are perceived as one sound. I suspect that such words are pronounced with simple vowels in English accents other than the present Queen's English standard. This is borne out by a teachers' textbook that I have which advises south of England teachers to place extra emphasis on the 'pure long vowel' of 'lake', which to southern English ears does sound more like an accent from further north of the country. Top of page
DIPHTHONGS (pronounced dif-thong **note** ) Two vowels sounded in quick succession, glided together and producing one syllable. Mnemonic: I ENJOY LOUD MUSIC
   
There are 4 diphthong signs - two first place, two third place. There are no second place diphthong signs. No heavy versions. The first three never change angle, the last may be rotated when joined.
First place
pie tie china lie rye my nice
fine vie thigh sigh shy sky wise high I/eye Joined at the beginning of some downstrokes and in phrases:
ice eyes idea item Ivan ire, I have, I think, I say, I shall For convenience, joined finally to stroke En (despite being a first place vowel) when no other stroke or ending follows:
night nigh deny downright fortnight finite Anno Domini but nights denies Contracted to a tick on upward Ell:
isle/aisle island islander Eileen/Aileen (but Aileen if so pronounced) As short form for 'I', contracted in phrases where convenient:
I believe, I propose, I regret, I can, I am, I will have First place The top half of the sign is written horizontally:
poise toy joy coy coil moist noise foible voice hoist
Joined only to upward Ell. The angle is adjusted slightly but this does not clash with the third place vowel 'owl' because of the outline's position. Not joined to other strokes because not convenient and could be confused with 'of the':
oil oiled oil-field oil-tanker oil-well Third place
out ouch joust cow mouth noun found shout loud how (short form) Joined initially to upward Ell, despite being a third place vowel, for convenience:
owl owlet owlish owl-like Joined as short form in phrases:
how many, how long Joined finally where convenient:
bow prow pout brow browed dhow/Dow doubt vow thou sow Howe Contracted after stroke N, when nothing else follows in the outline:
now Lucknow but nous Third place
puma tune tuna tube cube suitable fume music Hume you (short form) (the surname 'Hume' is sometimes pronounced 'home') Joined finally where convenient, when nothing else follows in the outline. Rotated when joined finally to horizontal strokes or upward ell. Do not rotate when free-standing, because this clashes with the W series of signs:
few pew cue/queue/Kew due/dew mew new continue pursue value
As short form, joined where convenient:
thank you, if you will, for you are, you should, can you, may you Top of page
DIPHONES A simple vowel followed immediately by another separately sounded vowel, thus forming 2 syllables.
   
Written in the correct place of the first vowel of the pair Angle never changes Never joined No heavy versions
Arrowhead, at 45° angle pointing south west, is used for a dot vowel plus any other:
sayer layer weighing previous readmit create neon tiara Maria Arrowhead, at 45° angle pointing north east, is used for a dash vowel plus any other:
sower snowy stoic poem gooey bluey jawing gnawing rawish
Diphones are often encountered as extensions to an original simple vowel, and so the vowels are perceived as two separate phonemes (meaningful units of sound):
pay payer mow mowing mower high higher but hire
Also used for these types of endings, although the vowels are barely sounded separately:
righteous question suggestion combustion pinion onion bunion but Bunyan
trachea* tracheae* Separate dots are used for the plural to distinguish the outlines - the extra dot cannot be mistaken for Dot Hay, because Dot Hay is never used finally. *pronounced track-ee-uh and track-ee-ee
Diphones are not used for: (a) short forms that have stroke Ing added, because short forms are not vocalised, and the Ing needs only its own dot:
be being go going do doing
(b) when adding 'dot ing' because the dot represents the whole 'ing' extension:
paying toying trying but tryingly Top of page
TRIPHONES Three vowels sounded in succession, normally a diphthong plus one other, producing two syllables. Shown by extending the diphthong sign with a tick.
 Written in the correct position of the first vowel of the pair  Only joined finally  No heavy versions
diary dial briar trier diameter flyer denying ionise
loyal royal joyous soya boyish moiety annoyance sequoia
power tower flower/flour towel vowel
viewer duet continuous puerile steward skua skewer but secure Some triphones consist of a simple vowel followed by a diphthong: write the diphthong next to the vowel (note the light dot is used):
radii genii denarii nuclei As with 'tracheae' above, the dot cannot be mistaken for Dot Hay, because Dot Hay is never used finally Top of page
VOWEL PLACEMENT 1. A vowel sign is placed to the side of the stroke, at the beginning, middle or end. The vowels are therefore described as first, second and third place vowels.
 All the strokes of the outline or phrase must be completed before any unjoined vowel is written.
 The beginning of a stroke is counted from where the pen starts writing

it. With strokes that can be written in either direction, the vowel placement will vary, and care should be taken when the stroke stands alone, both in writing and in transcription. Vowel before: place to left of up or downstrokes, upper side of horizontal strokes
 Vowel after: place to right of up or downstrokes, lower side of horizontal strokes
ape pay, Abe bay, aid day, age jay, ache Kay
aim may, inn no, ingle swinger
if fee, Eve vie, either thought, thin
us so, owes zoo, ash show
ale low, air row, awake way, ayah yes, ahem high 2. Place outside of circle S, Sway, Stee and Ster loop:
bees beast swan star stock stopper poster blister 3. SES circle is deemed to include the vowel in 'pen'; if it is a different vowel, write it inside the circle:
success masses bases (plural of base), basis, bases (pronounced baseez, plural of basis) emphasise emphasis exercise Dash vowel inside the circle – Books vary in showing at what angle it is written:
census Colossus exhaust 4. Shun hook – vocalise the stroke just as you would if the shun hook were not there, with the following exceptions: (a) Third place dots written inside the shun hook:
fashion fission vision revision mission permission lesion In most cases the dot inside the hook is the vowel immediately before the Shun, but sometimes it is the vowel before that:
remission television compare initiation (b) Third place dashes, diphones and diphthongs are written outside the shun hook when the hook is final (because they need more room) and inside when the hook is medial (to avoid the sign being read as belonging to the next stroke).
fusion solution ammunition revolution revolutionary education educational
radiation mediation pronunciation renunciation deviation deviationist The vowel between the Sh and N of the 'shun' is not vocalised at all, and the fact of the vowel being written inside or outside the hook is coincidental to getting the dot or dash or other sign against its own stroke, i.e. it is not part of the 'shun' syllable. Circle S + Small shun hook – the hook is deemed to include the vowel in 'much' and requires no vocalisation itself. The vowel that comes between circle S and the small shun hook:
   
Dash vowel: never occurs First place dot: never occurs Second place dot: omit Third place dot: write outside the hook (underlined below)
possession position precision decision condensation physician incision sensation musician recession recision In these examples underlined above, the vowel sign is actually being written against the little hook and not against the stroke, i.e. it is sounded after the S and before hook, and not sounded before the stroke. A third place vowel before the stroke should be placed a little way inwards from the hook. The following illustrates two vowels on the hook side of stroke:
apposition opposition imposition 5. Ell is normally an upstroke, therefore:
ell ill ale eel isle oil owl* Eli Leah *In 'owl' the third place vowel is joined to the beginning of the stroke for convenience, the only word that does this.
When Ell is written downwards, the vowels follow suit:
like alike 6. Ish is normally a downstroke, therefore:
ash shy shah shot show shut she shoe/shoo shoot/chute sheet shout When Ish is written upwards the vowels follow suit:
shaggy shagreen/chagrin, shack shackle, sham shammer 7. After a halved stroke, the vowel should be written against the second stroke, as it is sounded after the T or D:
cottage pottage bandage octopus potato written 8. All dots and dashes should be just far enough away to be distinguishable as separate marks, so that they do not interfere with the recognition of the strokes themselves. Only these instances have a dash vowel joined:
awl also; the short form 'all' may also be joined as in: almost already Top of page
INTERVENING VOWELS Intervening means 'coming between' (A) coming between two strokes 1st and 2nd place vowels: place against the preceding stroke:
pod paid bat boat dock duck tag take jag jug
mock make notch nape shadow shed lock lake
rag rug wad wed yak yoke hack hake hang hung 3rd place vowel: place before the following stroke. This is because a third place vowel written after the first stroke could end up in an angle between strokes and therefore be ambiguous – you would not know whether it was a third place vowel after the first stroke, or a first place vowel against the next stroke:
peel pull big beet book tick took
deep jig cheap fig food video meal nil
pip peep bib beep cook gig
If the two strokes are separated by a circle S or S-plus-hook, then the vowel must remain with the first stroke, it cannot 'jump' over the S, because it is sounded before. The presence of the S or S-plus-hook enables the vowel to be written in its correct third place with less ambiguity:
Dick disk, leap lisp, creep crisp, ping pinning A compound word is one that is made up of two other words. In the outline for a compound word, the vowel often remains where it would be if the words were written separately, thus aiding legibility:
headache book-end steam-engine Compound words are treated as one outline as regards to position (unlike phrases where the first word is written in position and the others tag along). Therefore the first up or down stroke might reside in the second of the two words, such as 'steam-engine' above. The above does not apply to derivative words, where there is one word and one affix; these have the vowels placed normally according to the basic rules:
unable inorganic inactive fewness steamer (B) coming between an initial hook and the stroke (e.g. PR and PL) See also Theory 7 Hooks R L/Vocalisation and Theory 15 R Forms page/R Hook For Brevity for more examples.
Although the R and L hooks are primarily used to represent the two consonants together, sometimes the hooked form is used even though a vowel is present, in order to avoid an awkward outline or obtain a better outline for very common words. Most of such intervening vowels are only lightly or indistinctly sounded. If the vowel is '-er' as in 'permit' it is not shown. It is however taken to be a second place light dot vowel (and is in fact shown as such in other outlines that are not using a hook) and so the outline takes second position, where this is the first vowel.
permit perfect persist term germ therm Other vowels between the stroke and hook are indicated as follows: A dot vowel is written as a disjoined circle, in its correct place, after the stroke unless that place is occupied by another vowel or there is no room to write the vowel.
challenge sharp carbon philosophy varnish flashily atmosphere Note: Very many 'car+consonant' words use the R hook A dash vowel is written across the beginning of the stroke, through the centre or through the end; it is not written across the end because that would look like the 'ings' suffix. Where a second place dash vowel is written through the stroke, the following vowel has to be written against the next stroke, as in 'courage' and 'occurrence' below:
tolerable correspondence church George shovelful fulfil courage occurrence A diphone or diphthong may also be written through, or at the end of, a hooked stroke:
healthier junior direct (2 pronunciations)
temperature mixture capture captures capturing The above use of R or L hook plus intervening vowel is not generally used for words of one syllable:
pale pair tall tore jeer mare Some short words use the intervening vowel to gain a brief outline, where clashes are unlikely:
nurse dark gnarl barm course Turk NOTE: The prefixes 'self-' and 'self-con-' also use a circle (in this case representing the S sound), and the outline is always in second position to match the vowel in 'self'.
 'Self-' circle is written before the stroke in second position. It might therefore look identical to a 2nd position intervening vowel, but the rules state that the short E vowel between stroke and hook is not shown (whether accented or not), although all other vowels may be shown. Therefore no clash occurs.

self-defence self-employed, Jersey shelf (2nd position vowel not written) 'Self-con-' circle is written against the top end of the stroke, replacing the 'con-' dot, so this cannot be mistaken for an intervening vowel, which is always against the side of a stroke.
self-confidence self-control 'self-' and 'self-con-' must always be written, unlike the vowels which are only written when needed (see Theory 18 Prefixes page). POSITION WRITING Position writing is a great strength of the system, enabling vowels to be indicated without any extra writing. Position writing combined with the various choices of abbreviating methods combine to make it clear which word is signified, without guesswork, when the vowels are eventually omitted. Unlike omitting vowels, position writing is not optional and you should practise inserting vowels until you know their placement perfectly, for two reasons: you need to know what and where they go in order to write the outline in the correct position, and when you do need to insert them, you have to do it very rapidly.
The first up or downstroke of the outline is placed in one of three positions in relation to the ruled line of the page, to match the place of the first vowel sound of the outline: First position: ABOVE the line
Second position: ON the line
Third position: THROUGH the line
Note: the vowel in the prefix dot 'con-' is ignored when deciding on the first vowel sound of the outline. As there is such a large number of con- & comwords, a means of vowel indication through position writing has to be maintained. Words beginning with the disjoined circle for 'self-' or 'selfcon-' are always written in second position, to accord with the vowel in the word 'self'. As the second and subsequent up or downstrokes in the outline simply follow on from the first one, their position with regard to the ruled line carries no meaning. An outline that is written as part of a phrase may end up out of position and may need a vowel inserted to keep it readable. If the first up or downstroke is a doubled one, then the first half of it is placed in position:
father curvature alter latter letter litter 'Father' should be started at high up as possible, and the end of the stroke will probably run through the ruled line, unless your shorthand writing is very small. With 'latter' the end of the stroke may invade the ruled line above, but this is acceptable. You should not reduce the full double length in
order to squeeze it within the ruled lines. You need the full length for clarity, so aim for longer rather than shorter. Inserting the vowel helps when there is only one stroke – the vowels are placed further apart on doubled strokes. Only a full up or downstroke can be written through the line, so if the first up or downstroke is halved, or there are only horizontal strokes in the outline, third position is also ON the line, sharing it with second position. Although horizontal strokes and halved up or downstrokes have no third position, vowels still have a third place against the stroke. For halved strokes, the three places are closer to each other along the shorter length:
fat fate fit
pit bed jade Mick moon noon cook Note: Vowels have a PLACE against a stroke Outlines have a POSITION in relation to the ruled line Top of page
OMISSION OF VOWEL SIGNS Inserting vowel signs in an outline is called vocalising. Although the beginner will write fully vocalised outlines, this is a temporary state of affairs while the vowels are being learned. At some point your textbook will encourage you to omit writing all the but the most necessary vowels. This does seem a great hurdle to the learner but once this step is taken, any perceived difficulties soon melt away. After a very short while this will become second nature, and you will recognise instantly when a vowel needs to be inserted. Omitting vowels is the very first step in writing at speed, which is why it is introduced at an early stage. This transition resembles writing separate letters of the alphabet and then going on to 'joined-up' writing – you write lightly, flowingly and speedily, rather than slow drawing and pressing into
the paper. This is the point in your learning when you realise that shorthand can be written fast, and eagerness takes over from frustration. There are two reasons why omission of vowels is not a problem:
 The varied ways in which the presence of a vowel can be indicated

without extra writing i.e. position writing, choice of alternative strokes and the use of full strokes versus hooks, circles, semicircles, loops and halving. The shorthand you read is generally what you have written yourself, therefore you are seeing it for the second time. Reading matter provided by others tends to have more vowels inserted.
 The type of material you write will generally be repetitive and as you become more familiar with the subject matter, writing and reading back becomes much quicker.
It is advisable to vocalise the following:
 Single stroke words, as there is no other stroke to reduce the possibilities.
 Diphthongs joined to a stroke should not be omitted, they should    
remain with the outline and be considered part of it. Unusual words and names of people and places, at least on their first occurrence in the dictation, as context does not give you help with those. Words in phrases that end up out of position may need the help of a vowel. One or both of pairs of Distinguishing Outlines. If you know you have written an outline badly or wrongly, you may only have time to insert a vowel or two, rather than rewrite the outline.
 Some scientific words are distinguished only by a change of vowel, as well as some non-English plurals:
sulphate sulphite antennae formulae larvae amoebae STROKE
This is a single straight or curved line that represents a consonant sound. All the horizontal and downstrokes are paired, thick and thin, to match the related sounds of voiced and unvoiced. No thick stroke is ever written upwards, Thick and thin refers to the width of the line and not the lightness or darkness of the colour, although the thick lines may end up being darker in colour because it takes pressure to form them. The outlines here were written with blue ink in a shorthand pen with flexible nib, and therefore the thick strokes appear darker because of the pooling of the ink. Pencil outlines may also show variation between grey and black. Black ink should produce much less variation in shade. Some older books refer to shading which should not be taken literally but is a description of the overall appearance of the marks. No basic stroke represents more than one sound. A stroke can have other consonants added to it by various means e.g. halving, doubling, thickening or addition of hooks or loops. A vertical dash vowel, e.g. against a horizontal stroke, should always be written downwards, whether it is above or beneath the stroke. The only time the pen writes upwards is while completing a circle or hook. Some dash vowels may sometimes have an upward slant when written to curves. Excess pressure with a sharp or unbending nib/fragile pencil tip/low grade paper at those points could be detrimental. There is no stroke or sign that is written straight upwards in its basic form; however, the halved Ess is written upwards in certain situations (being a halved stroke and therefore similar to writing half of a Circle Ses, part of which would necessarily have to be written upwards):
educationist expressionist impressionist OUTLINE This is the shorthand form for a word, before the unattached vowel signs are added. Write the strokes one after the other, joining them end to end, without stopping at the angles, lifting the pen or going back to thicken or
correct any part. All the strokes must be completed before inserting any further dots, dashes, vowel signs or intersections. Each stroke must be written in its correct direction. A few strokes have alternative directions in which they may be written, in certain circumstances. An outline may consist of: (a) One or more strokes forming a continuous ink line, including any attached vowels, hooks, circles and, optionally, unattached non-vowel marks:
fee form few manner stationery completed scrapings (b) Two parts written close together, used where certain joins are awkward, impossible or illegible – the outline is called 'disjoined':
attitude hesitatingly friendly Disjoining is also used for some abbreviating devices:
principality acceptability archaeological magnificent accommodate recognise hesitatingly friendly – see Theory 19 Suffixes principality acceptability archaeological – See Theory 20 Suffixes magnificent accommodate recognise - See Theory 18 Prefixes
Top of page
PROXIMITY Two outlines may be written close together, called proximity, as an abbreviating device to indicate the 'con' syllable at the beginning of the second word, to replace the 'con' dot (see Theory 18 Prefixes/Con page). Advanced writers often find other uses for proximity in their phrases, enabling them to leave out obvious words:
I am confident, in control Packing your shorthand outlines tightly together along the line is not a good idea, as proximity is meaningful in certain circumstances. The only time to do that is when you are running out of paper in an emergency or writing that time-honoured secret shorthand postcard that the postman cannot read! INTERSECTIONS A stroke may be written through an outline, as an abbreviating device for common words. There is a wide choice here, and every shorthand writer is free to create their own intersections to reflect their own needs:
political party, service department, application form, at the beginning Top of page
In any combination of strokes, it should be clear which strokes are involved and where each one starts and stops. Alternative methods are used in the following combinations: (a) Three similar straight strokes in succession – break up the outline, use the hyphen sign if it helps:
pop-up cake-cutter Where a halved or doubled straight stroke would not make an angle with other strokes in the outline:
popped Babette judged cooked dotted
fact factor liked bonnet A succession of all up- or downstrokes: 3 is maximum, 4 should be avoided to prevent the outline invading the line below or above, causing delays and interference.
door doorstep rarer tiptop* sheepfold* *Dictionary gives 4 downstrokes for tiptop and sheepfold, which goes against most textbook advice and lets the outlines invade two lines below. One might get away with 4 downstrokes if it started above the line, but these start already through the line. I would suggest breaking the words up – this gives the advantage that you can place both parts in position to indicate the vowel. This is also relevant for many words where it is not settled in usage whether it is one word, hyphenated or two words. You should write a reliable and convenient outline, and make a separate decision on how it should be transcribed. Top of page
ADDING VOWELS Adding vowel signs to an outline is called vocalising. An outline without its vowels is not considered incomplete. Dictionaries always show all the vowels. Dot 'con-', dot '-ing' and dash '-ings' are considered part of the outline, in the same way as joined diphthongs, and, unlike the unattached vowel signs, they should never be left out, except when using proximity for 'con-'. Adding or omitting unattached vowels is a choice that is left to the writer. You should always include those vowels that you think will help you read the shorthand. If you always write in all the vowels, your speed will be severely hampered, and you should endeavour to omit all but the essential ones. When dictation slows right down or there is a breathing space, it is tempting to go back and put in all the vowels. It is up to you how much to vocalise, and whether the extra time taken is working for or against you. If you think you might have to read back, having extra vowels in will reduce the stress. Putting them in at every opportunity is not a helpful habit if you wish to attain good shorthand speed – the two are incompatible. However, it is a good exercise to undertake periodically, so that you revise and consolidate your knowledge of them. Position writing is dependent on knowing your vowels thoroughly and you should not leave them out because you do not know what they are or where they go. Vowels are advised for:
 Short outlines, such as a single stroke, because there will be many words that one stroke could represent.
 Unusual, non-English or technical words. Some scientific words are
  
differentiated only by the vowel e.g. nitrite nitrate. You should make lists of such vocabularies in your line of work and decide where you need to consistently insert the vowels. Single outlines that have little or no context, such as headings or lists. Proper names i.e. people, places. Context does not help with proper names. Such outlines should also be as full as possible and not make use of short forms. Clashing or very similar pairs (see Distinguishing Outlines page). If the outlines are the same, you can generally omit the vowel in the common one and always put the vowel in the less common one, thus reducing your overall writing. Compile your own lists as you come across them, and let none escape, considering the damage or embarrassment they are capable of.
 When you have written an incorrect, doubtful or bad outline. In the heat of rapid dictation, you may have to create an outline in an instant. You know it is not the dictionary outline, but you must write something. The vowels will help you read it back, but the offending outline should be looked up and drilled to prevent a recurrence – keep a notebook so that you can practise them. Top of page
PHRASING Outlines for words may be joined in succession, as convenient, in order to increase speed. Each pen lift approximates to writing a stroke, so avoiding a pen lift by phrasing saves time. Phrasing is generally for sets of words that are frequently found together, or is used to mirror the way words are naturally grouped in normal speech:
Dear-Sirs Thank-you for-your-letter that-we-have-(re)ceived yest(erday)ev(en)ing yours-si(n)cerely Tick 'the' is always joined and therefore it always makes a mini-phrase. Phrasing is an extremely useful tool, with endless possibilities for time saving and many of its own abbreviation methods.
The ink line forming the phrase was called a 'phraseogram' in the early days of shorthand, out of a desire to give every new concept its own terminology, allowing the systems to be described and taught with exactitude. It is normal nowadays to just use the word 'outline' to cover any shorthand ink line, and 'phrase' covers either the outline or the set of words being represented by it. RULES OF THE SYSTEM There are three overriding rules governing how an outline's form is chosen. I am referring to the choices made throughout the history of Pitman's Shorthand by its creator and by subsequent publishers (Pitman Publishing/Longman). Facility = easy to write at all speeds, with no awkward pen movements Legibility = can be read back reliably and correctly; this includes ensuring outlines do not clash Lineality = keeping to the horizontal line of the notepad and not invading the line above or below The basic rules are simple, but variations and exceptions arise because not all combinations of strokes produce good outlines. They are also necessary to insure the system against the inevitable distortion of handwritten outlines versus the drawn perfection on the textbook pages. The system is geared to having the best possible outlines for high-speed writing and reliability. Producing the minimum number of rules or the slimmest possible textbook is not a priority in New Era. The basic outline-choice scenario:
 Join the consonant outlines end to end, in the same order as the    
sounds occur in the word. Incorporate any abbreviating devices available and suitable. Insert the vowel signs. If the resultant outline violates 'facility, legibility, lineality' then decide on a better outline. Some outlines depart from the normal rules because of the extreme convenience and brevity gained.
The rules are really just a way of describing how the outline choices were made, thus helping the student understand what is going on. Understanding requires intelligence but no great effort and is infinitely better than memorising, which is inefficient, painful and discouraging. As long as the
initial understanding is followed by lots of writing practice, memorising is totally unnecessary and redundant. Seeing a page thick with rules can be very daunting, but if you learn the example outlines thoroughly, they themselves will speak volumes to you and in far less time and space than the lengthy chapter they were presented in. They enable you to spot a bad combination simply by instant mental comparison with known good outlines. Every shorthand writer does this when correcting a dubious outline that has been dashed off. If you have an understanding of why the choices of outline were originally made, you will be better informed to make your own choices when you need to decide on the outline for a new word without recourse to a dictionary – either it is not in there, or you do not have access to the book. Until the publishers see fit to reprint Pitman's Shorthand dictionaries and bring them up to date, being able to do this is becoming ever more important for shorthand writers. You do not need to know all the niceties of the theory when first learning, but the more you know, the better you will be able to write new words, either ones not in the dictionary or when no dictionary is available. To aspiring high-speeders they are a never-ending toolbox for further creative abbreviation. Some textbooks advise knowing all the rules and applying them perfectly in order to write good and fast shorthand, but I disagree strongly with this. When writing shorthand, your outlines will of course embody the rules, but you will never be thinking of the rules – either the outline jumps to mind or it doesn't, and you must move on in the next fraction of a second. If you need to make up an outline during dictation, you will still not be thinking of the rules, you will be basing your new outline on one you already know. Shorthand outlines are visual and further learning and consolidation should concentrate on that, writing and seeing them constantly on the page and associating the spoken sound with them. Perusing the rules is for when you are sitting in your armchair at home, correcting faulty outlines by consulting the shorthand dictionary or textbook, and wondering why the outline looks like it does. For the learner, the outlines are the food, your understanding of the rules are the knife, fork and spoon that shape the meal and help it go down. When you are out and about using what you have assimilated, the cutlery stays at home! QUICK REFERENCE TABLES Name Sound
Circle Initially=S S Elsewhere=S or Z
Z initially uses stroke zeal Use Ess if no other stroke session Circle S-S, S-Z, Z-Z Ses
poses persist Circle Sw Sway
Use Way if no other stroke, or medially or sway finally
Stee St Loop stop
Use Tee if no other stroke stay Please note this outline has been corrected to show
circle anticlockwise 23.7.14
Ster Ster Loop
Never initially, use other strokes
sterling starry
Ses and Sway are mutually exclusive as regards position on the stroke, therefore they will never clash with each other. Name R hook
L hook
N hook
F/V hook
spray supper
supple splay
pens moons
paves pufs
suffer summer
Circle S
Circle Ses
dances Circle Sway
sweeper Stee Loop
Ster Loop
See Theory Vowels page for vowel placement against strokes that have these circles and loops.
 Only Circle Ses can be vocalised, the others cannot. Other than Circle        
Ses, it is the stroke that is vocalised. There are no thick versions of circle or loops. They must be written in the correct circular motion i.e. anti-clockwise (left motion) or clockwise (right motion), according to the rules below. They are read first and last in the outline, or that section of the outline, with the stroke and its various vowels, hooks, halving, etc coming in the middle. If the word starts or ends with a vowel, strokes must be used instead. May be added to short forms and contractions. May form part of phrases. Ensure to close the circle or loop so that it does not look like a hook. Ensure to take the circles right round so they do not look like loops. When used medially, circles will not always be exactly circular, they will take on distortions, see adjustment and chisel below as examples of this. When this occurs, do not mistake them for loops – medial loops are always followed by a sharp change of direction, see masterpiece in table above, something circles never do.
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CIRCLE S A vowel may come between the Circle S and the stroke (e.g. sap, pass), or the two may be run together (e.g. spa, apse). The outline gives no indication of this, unless vocalised. In this respect the Circle S differs from the R and L hooks which generally represent a compound consonant e.g. PL and PR. Circle S is written:
 Anticlockwise to straight strokes  Inside curves  Outside an angle Anti-clockwise to straight strokes:
sap spa apse pass sub bus abs sit stay eats teas
sad ads days such choose sage juice
sack sky axe case sag guess eggs hose (=upward Hay) ways yes Between two similar straight strokes, still anti-clockwise, the same as you would write it if the first stroke was the only one:
decide disdain tacit testy precept exact cask bespoke Busby Inside curves:
safe face sphere save voice Seth thaws seethe this
size cease sash shows sign snow nice inns
same maze aims smile simile songs sir ears
passer passive possess basin bosom design flotsam
cousin chasm chosen adjacent adjustment reason resume Between two curves that have the same motion, follow that motion:
evasive fasten lissom listen unsafe muscle nicely noiseless If the curves have opposite motions, the circle generally goes clockwise, often (but not always) resulting in the circle being outside the angle:
mason massive season unsolved arising
facile but facility, vacillate but vacillated, insulate but insulated What you should NOT do with Circle S is make a sudden change of direction; this somewhat awkward joining is used very sparingly, being reserved for indicating:
 An R Hook on a following straight stroke, where the hook cannot be shown in any other way; however, after P and B the R hook is omitted for convenience (if it were shown, it would look too much like a Stee loop):
describe discretion disagree discourage
R omitted in: prescribe subscribe
 Stroke Hay medially, in order to differentiate between Hay and Circle S:
anyhow, any such, upheld passer-by
Between M-N and N-M, in derivative words, the circle should remain with its original curve:
miss missing, seemly unseemly, mince mincemeat
some noisome (=annoy+some), noise noise-maker Outside an angle:
passage beseech basic task dosage tassel chisel respond Top of page
With hooks Where the circle and hook would individually be written on the same side of the stroke, when you wish to show both, the circle must be written INSIDE the hook. Theoretically, circle is extra small and the hook remains its normal size; in practice the hook generally needs to be ever so slightly larger to avoid ink blobbing, and the circle can be flattened into a tiny loop (it is not a Stee loop which are never used inside hooks). Do not let your small hooks grow in size and get confused with the larger hooks (Shun, and L Hook on curves).
L Hook: supple splay settle saddle satchel sickle safflower soufflé civil
R & N Hooks to curves: suffer sever summer mains signer nines fines vines
F/V Hook: puff puffs cuff cuffs tough toughs
Kway (Gway): square squash squeal squeeze consequence (Gway could take Circle S but no examples found)
Way: use Circle S with Way for those words when Circle Sway is not possible:
way sway persuade but swerve swayed Wel: does not take Circle S, instead discard the hook and use Sway Circle on stroke Ell:
well swell Whay Whel Yay: do not take an initial Circle S Where there is a vowel between a final F/V and S, this is generally a plural of an outline that is already written with full strokes:
cave caves, cavy cavies, buff buffs, bevy bevies
tiff tiffs, toffee toffees, Dave Dave's, Davey Davey's A medial Circle S does not indicate a hook purely by its direction, because the direction of the circle is used only for convenience. In many cases a medial hook can be shown as well, with the circle following the motion of the hook:
bicycle express listener display miscreant unschooled inscrutable Small Shun Hook: Circle S, and Circle S following N hook, can both be followed by the small shun hook
composition compensation decision condensation transition Top of page
With R Hook and N Hook to straight strokes: On a straight stroke, the R or N Hook is closed up to make a circle. Both are thus indicated, because that is not the usual side/direction for an initial or final circle:
R: spay spray, sub sobriety, stay stray, sky screw
N: pays pains, toes tones, choose chance, Joe's John's
N: guess gains, rays rains, ways wanes, yes yens Medial circles Between two straight strokes the hook should be shown, the circle following the direction of the hook. Medial circles use the direction that is most convenient, so the direction cannot be reversed to indicate any hooks, unlike at the beginning and ends of strokes (apart from the necessity to choose the direction for legibility, it would also not be clear whether the plain circle, if so used, meant an N Hook on the first stroke, or an R Hook on the second stroke):
prosper destroy district excursion corkscrew If there is a vowel after the N sound, use stroke En so that it can be vocalised. The presence of the stroke N lets you know there is a vowel, so vocalisation is normally unnecessary:
bones bonus, tens tennis, chines Chinese, mines minus The combination S-CH-R is not found standing alone in any English word, therefore this outline is used for the stroke downward Hay. Should such a combination appear in a new word or name, it would be have to be written with stroke Ar after the S-CH, or stroke Ess plus Cher if the word began with a vowel. However, this sequence of sounds can be written in the middle of a
word, providing the S is shown inside the hook, thus avoiding clashing with the downward Hay:
beseech beseecher Abraham Circle S can be added to final Stee and Ster loops and Circle SES:
posts posters exercises Top of page
Read first and last In case of difficulty, mentally remove the circle and then read the outline correctly, before mentally adding the S back in:
pray spray, upper supper, play splay, apple supply, pint pints, dove doves, roof roofs
fund funds, amount amounts, nine nines, inner sooner, ever sever Dot 'con-' dot '-ing' and dash '-ings' are read first and last, if present:
strict constrict, strain constrain, some consume, dance dancing, rinsing rinsings
Top of page
When not to use Use the stroke Ess or Zee when: (a) there is an initial vowel before the S, or a final vowel after it. The stroke can then be vocalised, although its presence lets you know there is a vowel involved:
sack ask, mess messy, seed acid, sense essence
boss bossy, noise noisy, haze hazy, slate isolate
(b) the S is the only consonant sound in the word (because you need somewhere to put the vowel); retain the stroke in derivatives:
ice sigh sighing sighs/size, sea sea-level but sleeve, sea-kale but sickle (c) the vowel between the S sound and the stroke is a triphone, and in other places to distinguish from plurals:
signs science, virtues virtuous, heirs heiress, Jews Jewess, dangers dangerous Top of page
S versus Z sound Initially, the sound is S; medially and finally the sound can be S or Z:
seep piece/peas same mace/maze Final NS and NZ sound after a curve are differentiated by using:
 Hook N for NZ – generally a plural, but not always  Stroke En for NS – generally a word that can be used as a verb, and therefore needs to have easy derivatives
NZ: fen fens
NZ: vine vines
NS: fence – fences fenced fencing fencer
NS: evince – evinces evinced evincing evincible
NZ: mean means
NS: mince – minces minced mincing mincer
NZ: nine nines announcer
NZ: line lines
NS: announce – announces announced announcing
NS: lance - lances lanced lancing lancer lancet
Note: lens lenses As lens is singular, despite its Z sound, stroke N and Circle Ses have to be used for the plural, and there is no such word as 'lences' for the plural to clash with. More examples of NS verses NZ:
thins thence, shines conscience, salines silence
Pauline's opulence, vines Venice, Essenes essence Those with a linguistic interest may notice that words like mince/mints are pronounced identically, but perceived differently. 'Mints' is halved to indicate the T, as the T sound is part of the original word; the T sound in 'mince' is the first part of the S sound (if you removed it the word would sound like 'minz'):
mint mints mince, fent fents fence, silent silents silence
comment comments commence, dent dents dense
assistant assistants assistance, chant chants chance This is a timely reminder that (a) shorthand dictation must be undertaken intelligently, and the meaning followed while writing, and (b) Pitman's Shorthand is not designed to be entirely phonetic, it only needs to indicate which word was spoken. Top of page
Why Circle S and Ses include the Z sound The S sound can change into the Z sound in plurals and genitives, but when it does, it is not changing the word into a different word. The circle is used to represent both in order to preserve the general shape of the outline and to allow its consistent use for plurals and genitives: house (noun) = 'hous' houses (plural) = 'houziz' house (verb), hows (plural noun) = 'houz' house's (genitive) = 'housiz' Consistent and easy outlines are achieved, but at the expense of some words such as mace/maze peace/peas where the S and Z sounds signify different words. The longhand has solved the problem, in only using the letter Z and sometimes letter C, to show othe difference. The shorthand has partly solved this problem in a similar manner, with the aim of writing words briefly and reliably, rather than strictly phonetically. Shorthand does not always preserve the basic outline when forming derivatives, but as plurals and genitives cover so many words, the advantages of allowing Circles S to do duty for both S and Z sounds outweigh the disadvantages.
Suggestion for advanced writers: if you have constant trouble in your line of work with certain pairs of outlines, you can choose to use stroke Zee finally for Z-words (as long as you are aware this it is not an official outline) but you may wish to indicate that there is no following vowel, by using a short vertical line parallel to the stroke, or some other mark of your choosing. Such idiosyncracies should be strictly limited by necessity, and given very careful consideration before adoption. As always, keep a note of your departure from the normal rules. You cannot adopt any such method if you wish to teach shorthand! An initial Z sound has to use the stroke, even though no vowel comes before it:
zeal zebra zenith zero zest zinc zip zone zoologist Top of page
CIRCLE SES This is a large circle, used in middle or at the end of an outline, placed in the same way as Circle S, to represent:
S-S: basis necessary necessity insist thesis
S-Z: bases paces busses faces voices losses masses taxes fixes
Z-S: possessive exhaust exist resist
Z-Z: opposes dazes fuses cruises muses mazes noses raises/razes Top of page
When not to use S-S sound at the beginning: Circle Ses is never used at the beginning of an outline, as that place is taken by Circle Sway. Two initial S sounds should be shown with the full stroke Ess followed by Circle S. This makes an easier outline and logical derivatives, as the formation of an angle is avoided, its place being taken by the circle.
sauce sauces, cease ceases ceasing, sighs/size sizes sizing sizeable, scissors secede Do not follow longhand: Do not be misled by words like those below, which do not contain the sounds of s-vowel-s, they merely appear at first glance to do so in longhand; they are in fact Circle S followed by Shun Hook:
decision possession accession incision cessation secession Differentiation: Where the SeS or SeZ (with short E) is part of the basic word (e.g. not a plural or a verb S-ending) or if a diphthong or diphone is involved, Circle S plus stroke Ess is generally preferred; this is because there
is such a large number of this type of word that a regular means of differentiation is needed between them and plurals of shorter words. The derivatives will generally keep the stroke Ess, but Circle Ses is sometimes used where it is more convenient e.g. to avoid an awkward joining or to shorten the outline. This is an example of speed/ease of writing being more important that having 'tidy' rules:
poses poses but possess possesses possessed possessing possessive possessor
axe axes but access accesses accessed accessing, excess excessive
boss bosses/boss's but abscess abscesses, obsess obsesses obsessive
raise raises, recess recesses recessed recession recessive
gas gases but gaseous (this word is sometimes pronounced 'gayshus') Exceptions have been made for the following very common words for the sake of convenience. The outlines are distinctive with Circle Ses, and therefore they do not need to use the stroke S:
exercise exercising, success successful, emphasise emphasised
Note: sixes and sexes might need vocalising; exorcise is distinguished by the use of stroke Zee Top of page
Basic words with vowel other than short E can use the Circle Ses:
crisis analysis hypothesis Words like those above form their plural by a change of vowel. It would be good practice to omit the singular vowel, and always insert the plural one:
crises hypotheses Some of these types of words have identical plurals and verb endings in longhand, although pronounced differently, so vocalising the Circle Ses may be helpful:
Noun: diagnosis diagnoses Verb: diagnose diagnoses
Noun: analysis analyses Verb: analyse analyses If the accent falls in different places, you can indicate this by adding a small cross next to the vowel. This method is useful for many pairs of words where the nouns and verbs have different syllables accented. As the words are generally spelled identically, this merely aids comprehension of the text as you read your shorthand back, especially important if reading back in situ, with all eyes on you. My personal suggestion is to replace the vowel – the position of the cross lets you know what the vowel might be, and other vowels should not be necessary. You should ensure that the cross does not look like a diphthong or diphone:
Plural noun analyses Verb analyses Top of page
With hooks Circle Ses can be combined with N hook to straight strokes, in the same way as Circle S:
bounces dances expenses experiences It cannot be combined with F/V hooks, or any hooks on curved strokes. When written medially it is impractical for it to be followed by a hooked stroke. Vowels
See Theory Vowels page for how to vocalise Circle Ses. In brief, the short vowel sound as in 'pen' is not indicated in Circle Ses, as it is the most common, but any other vowel between the S-S may be written inside the circle. Adding a third S Circle S can be added onto the big Circle Ses by continuing the motion, writing the small circle on the other side of the stroke:
emphasises successes exercises censuses Top of page
Other uses The large circle can represent two circles:
 In a few compound words it can represent two S's that belong to separate parts of the compound, even though only one S is sounded, to make the outline more readable (this has nothing to with the 'ses' in the longhand):

 
house-surgeon house-sparrow flaxseed In a few words with diss- and miss- to provide distinction or improve readability – see Theory 18 Prefixes/Dis and Mis Circle S followed by the stroke Hay circle, see Theory 12 Hay/Large medial circle page.
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CIRCLE SWAY This is a large circle, used at the beginning of an outline, placed and read in the same way as Circle S, to represent the sound of SW.
 Never used medially or finally.  No vowel comes before the 'SW-' and not vowel comes between the S 
and the W. Never vocalised, as there is no vowel to show. The vowel that follows it is placed against the stroke.
 The name 'Sway' is for convenience – any vowel may come after it.
sweep swab sweat swayed/suede Swedish switch swag
swivel swath swathe Swiss Swaziland swish swim swamp swan swing
swear swirl swarm swarthy swerve swerved* *special outline, see Distinguishing Outlines List4 It can be placed on a halved or doubled stroke:
swept sweated swathed swooned swelter Top of page
With hooks: Circle Sway can be combined with R hook to straight strokes, just like Circle S:
sweeper swabber sweater switcher swagger It is not combined with any other hooks. When used with stroke Ell, the initial hook that would normally form 'Wel' becomes redundant:
ell well swell, low wallow swallow It never combines with the hook on stroke Yay or Way. If such a word arose, it would probably best to start the outline with Circle S on Way, followed by the appropriate strokes or diphone. Someone who is swayed might be a swayee? If you lived in the town of Swaye, maybe you could be travelling Swaye-wards? People do make up words and the shorthand writer has to write them, whether they are in the dictionary or not. Top of page
When not to use: Use Circle S on stroke Way: (a) if the SW is the only consonant in the outline, retaining it in derivatives:
sway sways swayer swaying but swayed/suède for convenience, swayback (b) In the middle of a word or outline:
dissuade persuade persuasion persuasive (suasion and suasive retain this form) In a derivative, the SW may end up in the middle:
sweetened but unsweetened, swerving but unswerving (e) before stroke Hay:
Swahili In some words the S and W, although together, are parts of separate words:
crosswise passway password (word=short form) glassware (but ware/wear) If a vowel comes before the SW, use stroke Ess and medial semicircle W:
assuage a-swirl aswarm* Aswan* (*these two not in shorthand dictionary)
Use Circle S and medial semicircle W where it is not convenient to use stroke Way:
Homeswell Harmsworth Do not be misled by longhand spelling:
sward has the W sound but sword does not. Do not be tempted, in a confused moment, to use Circle Sway for these types of words where the sound is SKW:
square squash squiggle Face shorthand learning square on, squash the problems and master the squiggles! See Theory 2 Vowels page for vowel placement for strokes that have loops.
        
Both loops are applied to the stroke in the same way as Circle S. Stee represents the sounds ST, and also ZD finally. Ster represents the sounds ST + slurred vowel + R. No vowel comes between the S and T sounds. Stee can be used at the beginning, middle and end of an outline. Ster can be used in the middle and end only. Read first and last. The name Stee is for convenience only, any vowel can come before or after it. The name Ster does approximate to the vowel it contains i.e. slurred and unaccented.
 The loops themselves are never vocalised – with Stee there is no   
vowel and with Ster the vowel is always slurred. There are no thick versions. Can be combined with R and N Hooks on straight strokes, but no other hooks. Can be followed by Circle S.
STEE LOOP Size and shape The loop should be shallow, closed and extend half the length of the stroke. Keep the final part flattened so that it does not look like Circle S. Ensure it is closed so that it does not look like a hook. If the stroke is halved, then the Stee loop is half of that length:
stiff fist stiffest, mist midst, steam steamed
state stated, study studied, stopped stored didst (archaic) On a doubled stroke, the loop remains the same size as on normal length strokes:
stamper stinker stentor Top of page
Placement and use: Write on the same side as Circle S:
stop stub stood stitch stage stick stag
stuff stove stethoscope Staithes stem stump stone sting
steal store storm stern story/storey stereo
paste best toast tossed dust deduced just chest cost guest
fast vast atheist lithest essayist ceased sauced zest schist lushest fascist
must warmest imposed nest honest west yeast haste Top of page
Can also represent the sound ZD finally:
posed buzzed abused dazed cruised refused mused nosed raised whizzed When used finally, there does not have to be a vowel before the ST:
lapsed traipsed waltzed blitzed Stee loop is used medially after Tee Dee Jay Ell, where it makes a good join with a clear angle (but also see derivatives note below):
testing dusting adjusting fantastic statistics artistic logistics elastic stylistic Top of page
With other strokes, the join is not so good, or cannot be made, so these use dot '-ing' or Circle S and Tee:
posting boasting fasting listing misting nesting wasting Hastings
posted boasted tasted dusted fasted listed misted nested wasted
customer fastidious instead plastic obstacle obstinate hostile
Dot 'con-' can precede the loop:
constellation consternation constipated constitute constituted Sometimes a medial lightly-sounded T is omitted from the outline, therefore just Circle S is used:
last lastly, post postal, vast vastly vastness, most (short form) mostly
firstly first-rate mistake procrastinate institute Top of page
In compound words, even though the second word normally uses the loop, it is quicker to write one outline with full strokes – loops by nature involve a change of direction, whereas consecutive strokes keep the movement going forward more quickly; a speed-reducing pen-lift is also avoided:
book store bookstore, live stock livestock
up stairs upstairs, out stare outstare, stick mahlstick The following do not follow the normal rule about keeping the strokes of derivative parts separate but the convenience of the outlines prevails:
candle stick candlestick hail storm hailstorm Do not be misled by the longhand spelling, where the T is silent:
pestle bustle castle gristle nestle* whistle *Note the Circe S in 'nestle' looks like a Stee loop, but it is not, this is merely a distortion of the circle when it is written between the two curves. A medial stee loop never crosses the outline.
chasten christen glisten listen fasten hasten Do not confuse with TS:
post pots, fast fats, toast tots, chest chats, must moats, waste waits Top of page
With R Hook on straight strokes The ST is read first, then the stroke with its R Hook next. There is always a vowel sound between initial Stee loop and the stroke. The R Hook is used in these cases because the vowel before the R sound is indeterminate:
stopper stutter stitcher stager sticker stagger With N Hook on straight strokes The stroke with its N Hook are read first, and the ST read last. There is no vowel between the N sound and the ST:
pounced bounced tensed danced chanced rinsed winced enhanced Where there is a vowel between the N sound and the ST, these outlines are derivatives using a full stroke En:
run runny runniest, puny puniest, brain brainy brainiest Top of page
Circle S following Circle S can be added after Stee loop by continuing the motion, writing the small circle on the other side of the stroke:
posts tests guests masts nests lists arrests rests
If there is a vowel before the last S, Stee loop is not used:
hosts hostess, pastes pasties, beasts beasties Circle S never precedes Stee loop:
cistern system cystic sustain Sistine sister Top of page
When not to use If the ST sounds are the only consonantal sounds in the word:
stay stow sit east oust iced asset Derivates of the above type of word retain the original outline and do not take Stee loop (but see also below**):
stay stayer staying (compare with stair and sting)
stow stowing stower (compare with store) **The past tense of words beginning with ST does however use the Stee loop, to avoid ending up with two full strokes:
stayed/staid stowed stewed Top of page
For the combination STR, use Circle S and stroke T with R Hook:
stray strayed straying strayer straw construe strain construct obstruct mistrust If a vowel occurs between the S and T:
best beset, test tacit, deposed deposit
faced facet, vest visit, star seater satire
If there is a vowel before an initial ST or after a final ST:
astound astonish astray astute esteem estate pasta chesty majesty gusto
feisty vista misty nasty lusty rusty Westie yeasty hasty When the ST precedes a stroke with a hook that cannot be combined with the loop, then Circle S and Tee must be used. The hooked form is used because the vowel is unaccented:
staple stipple stable stubble stickle stifle Top of page
Do not use initially to Ess or Ish
stasis Stacy apostasy stash station Before upward RT or a triphone, use Circle S and Tee:
start starting started (derivative: starter) Stortford steward stewardess Stewart/Stuart Cannot be written initially to Way, Yay, Hay, Kwa or Gwa Cannot be written on a Shun Hook:
perfectionist expressionist Not used at the end of doubled strokes – use a halved Ess:
tenderest Top of page
Derivatives Derivatives generally follow on from the original outline wherever possible, whilst a word that has a similar consonant structure may be written differently because it is either not a derivative of anything, or derived from a different outline:
majesty majestic compare with logistics
taste tasty tastiness compare with testings
dust dusty dustiness compare with dustings
stiff stiffly stuffy stuffily compare with stifle
stick sticky stickily compare with stickle
stub stubby stubbily compare with stubbly
stain stains stained compare with stand standard stunt stint constant stance Top of page
STER LOOP Size and shape
This is a large loop, written two thirds the length of the stroke, and fuller than the Stee loop. Keep the final part flattened so that it does not look like Circle Ses. Ensure the loop is closed that it is does not look like Shun Hook. It is not used on halved or doubled strokes. Placement and use Write on the same side as Circle S:
poster brewster bluster Webster lobster taster truster duster roadster
coaster cluster chorister huckster Baxter Manchester adjuster register
foster vaster investor ancestor Cirencester* shyster (*This town name does have several other traditional local pronunciations)
master semester minister imposter hamster dumpster
nester sinister songster gangster Lester/Leicester Ulster bolster burster
roster forester barrister waster southwester souwester Hester Top of page
Can be used medially, only if there is a good join:
masterpiece fosterer upholsterer bolsterer Chesterfield but Chesterton Stroke Ing cannot be added after Ster loop, therefore use dot '-ing':
fostering bolstering ministering blusterings For '-ingly' use all full strokes (the strokes for '-ingly' are often used disjoined elsewhere in shorthand, when a join is not possible):
blusteringly Ster loop not used on doubled or halved strokes. The following are not doubled strokes, but two of the same stroke in succession:
popster* Chichester
(*not in dictionary)
Top of page
With N Hook on straight strokes The stroke and its N Hook are read first, and the Ster read last. There is no vowel between the N and the Ster:
punster spinster Dunster Where there is a vowel between the N sound and the Ster, the full stroke En is used:
banister canister Glennister Circle S following Circle S can be added after Ster loop by continuing the motion, writing the small circle on the other side of the stroke:
posters masters fosters adjusters registers Top of page
When not to use If ST-R are the only consonantal sounds in the word:
aster Esther Easter oyster store stir Stour If there is a clear vowel between the ST and the R:
posture pasteurise moisture mixture Finisterre posterior posterity If a vowel follows and/or there is no vowel between the ST and R:
extra history mystery songstress blustery Top of page
Derivatives When a D sound follows, the Ster loop cannot be written medially and so the outline uses Circle S and TRD:
pestered blustered upholstered bolstered mastered
registered fostered clustered rostered There are very few cases where Ster is used medially, and in derivatives the outine generally uses Circle S and T or TR:
ministerial, ministry ministration (contractions), ministered ministrant (R omitted)
assist assister* (note sister) assistant, Gloucester Gloucestershire, dexter dextrous (*not in dictionary, I have based this on 'ancestor')
yester but yesterday (contraction), yesteryear yesternight
master but master-key Words like 'master-key' may equally well be written as separate words (both in shorthand and in transcription), as the hyphenation of pairs of words is not strictly fixed and can be changeable, according to the differing opinions of dictionary editors, as well as custom and fashion. However, writing one outline is quicker than writing two.
Hooks are used to indicate the sounds of R, L, N, F/V and Shun/Zhun, as alternatives to the full st revision/overview purposes and the main hooks pages cover the rules in detail. Attempting to lear alone is not advised and will lead to errors in their use. 
Small hooks are approximately one fifth the length of the stroke. They are similar size to C up.

Large hooks are approximately one third the length of the stroke.

Hooks are never in any circumstances written on the outside of curves.

Hooks are always written thin, never thick.

On straight strokes, the beginning of the hook is written parallel to the stroke, it does not c tend to look like either a plain circle S or a circle S attached to the hook.

In some combinations the hook is slightly deformed to allow the joining, e.g. 'cudgel' unde way, the hook should not be curled round in such combinations. Where alternative forms ar Thee, and strokes that can be written either up or down, it is generally possible to avoid a l sometimes the formation of other parts of the outline have to take precedence over the exa

Keep the hooks open so they do not look like circle or loops.

Keep the small hooks small and the big hooks big – ensure there is a good difference betwe

The small hooks remain the same size regardless of whether the stroke is halved, full or do reduced in length slightly when the stroke is halved, to maintain legibility – do not reduce t a small hook.

In the R and L hook series, the hooked strokes have names – Per, Pel, Sher, Shel etc., so t easily, although the name is not quite in keeping with the primary use of the R and L hooks

The hooks always represent something after the stroke, even though with initial hooks the

In the table below, impossible combinations are shown with a dash.

Some combinations are theoretically possible but no examples are forthcoming, these are t words or non-English names. These unused combinations may be employed when creating hook may serve to represent a whole word e.g. Shun for 'association'.
Name Pee
Stroke R
Bee bray
Tee tray
ton bottle
Dee done
draw paddle
Jay cudgel badger
Kay crow
acre Note the hook starts on the line, with the stroke tackle slightly above the line
cane Note the stroke starts on the line, with the hook below the line
Gay grow
Note the hook starts on the line, with the stroke slightly above the line Kway
gain Note the stroke starts on the line, with the hook below the line
Gwen -
yawn Ell
fuller than (phrase) Wel
woollen Hwel
Whelan Ar
Hooked form is allocated to reversed Eff-R
Hooked form is allocated to reversed Eff-L earn
Hooked form is allocated to reversed Vee-R
Hooked form is allocated to reversed VeeL
poorer than (phrase)
Eff offer
free (reversed)
raffle (reversed)
Vee ever
river (reversed)
vain/vane/ vein
rival (reversed)
Ith ether
three (reversed) Thee
bother (reversed) Ess
Hooked form is allocated to reversed Ith-R
Hooked form is allocated to reversed Thee-R
Ish usher
Sher always down
Shel always up
measure Em
men hammer
Imb, Imp
Normally indicated by dampen Em plus PL/BL
Doubling also used for this sound:
jumper En inner final
banker This is used for ing-ker and ing-ger, not ing-er.
Normally indicated by Ing plus KL/GL
hang on (phrase)
Doubling also used for this sound:
Top of page
'Whatever is true, whatever is noble, whatever is right, whatever is pure, whatever is admirable – if anything is excellent or praiseworthy – think about such things.' (Philip
R & L Hook to straight strokes R is shown by a clockwise hook written at the beginning of the stroke. L is shown by an anticlockwise hook written at the beginning of the stroke.
pray play brew blue tray dray crow clay grew glue
upper apple rubber rubble batter battle adder addle acre eager eagle
etcher fetcher voucher lodger Roger catcher cadger cudgel hopper yapper Top of page
R & L Hook to curved strokes R is a small hook inside the beginning of the stroke:
offer ever every author either
shrew shrub shred shrink usher Esher masher washer
pressure fisher/fissure leisure measure erasure casher but cashier usury
inner honour tanner liner emmer slimmer hammer L is a large hook inside the beginning of the stroke. As hooks are never written outside the curve, the difference has to be shown by having a larger hook:
flow fly evil Ethel camel tunnel bushel essential Sher is always written downwards and Shel always upwards, so they can never be mistaken for each other:
pusher specialise, fisher official, fresher freshly
polisher palatial, finisher initial, harsher Herschel but harshly There appears to be no word that contains ZH-L with an slurred vowel, but should one occur, it would never be written upwards, as it is a thick stroke. That combination of sounds would probably is best written using the full stroke Ell.
casually, casual (optional contraction), usual/usually (short form) Top of page
Vocalisation Vowels are always placed outside the hook. Only the Shun Hook takes a vowel inside and then only in certain circumstances (see Shun Hook on Theory 2 Vowels page).
(a) No intervening vowel Vowels are read immediately before the double consonant or immediately after:
appraise oblique address across acclimatise (b) An indistinct, unaccented or slurred vowel between the two consonants. This is never shown and the outline is fully correct without it. With the R hook, this is generally the '-er' sound (equivalent to 2nd place light dot), hence the 2nd position of the outline. See Intervening Vowels on Theory 2 Vowels page for fuller explanation:
reader puddle miner/minor person personal terminal machinery Top of page
(c) Distinct vowel Although the intervening vowel is generally an indistinct one, some distinct vowels are allowed for convenience, to avoid unwieldy outlines. Such vowels are indicated somewhat differently from normal, by circles and intersected dashes, and their placement. See also Theory 2 Vowels/Intervening Vowels and Theory 15 R Forms page/R Hook For Brevity for more examples.
engineer mutineer veneer souvenir virulent ethnology Penelope In many words the second syllable starts with a consonant. As no vowel needs to be written between the syllables, using the hook results in a briefer outline:
perfect perceive purchase persuade pearl parcel pilgrim
journey vortex culminate garnish carnage furnish Care with 'per-' needs to be taken, because there are many similar words starting with 'pre-' and 'pro-'. Some combinations of consonants never occur in English without a vowel inbetween, so the hook may safely be used to obtain a briefer outline, as it will not clash with any other words:
telephone telegraph deliberate divulge charm Charles German
molecule moral nullify narrate nourish shilling
analytic enliven enlighten enlightenment* Dunlop *contraction Other examples:
collect courage college forget caramel colony ignore More examples on Theory 15 R Forms page/R Hook For Brevity (d) Third place vowels Unlike Circle S, the presence of a hook in the middle of a stroke does not affect the correct placement of a third place vowel against the second of the 2 strokes. This is because, although the hook is written between the strokes, the R or L that it represents is spoken after the stroke, i.e. there is nothing spoken between the two consonants other than the vowel:
trip tripper, cheap cheaper, tick tickle, dig digger
book booker, look looker, rich richer, teach teacher
nib nibble, rip ripple reapply, grim grimmer Compare the placement of the vowel in:
weep weeper wisp, deep deeply display
whip whipper whisper, rip ripper respray
fitch visage, groom groomer gruesome Top of page
Reversed forms for F V Ith Thee Ar Rer Ess Zee do not use R or L Hook (see below) and these shapes when hooked are used to represent reversed versions of hooked F V Ith Thee. Reversing is used:
 to obtain a better join (both hooks)  to indicate absence of initial vowel (R hook only) The reversal is not a mirror image, either vertically or horizontally, but the 'mirror' is along the stroke's own angle of formation. They cannot clash with Ar Rer Ess Zee because of the presence of the hook – see zither below which has both strokes together.
Thel does not take right curve form. Most words with that combination use stroke Ell (see below). No known examples of the voiced THel. Reversed Forms, R Hook
(a) One stroke outlines The reversed form provides a means of vowel indication: left curve if there is a vowel or 'dot con-' before, right curve if not. Derivatives that add another stroke retain the form if possible: Left:
offer suffer afront/affront affright affray
(afront = in front of; affront = insult)
over* ever every sever averse converse conversion conversation Avro Sèvres *short form
author ether athirst either soother seether cither Right:
free fray frost friend front fright fruit
verse versed version versus very* *short form
throw three thrice thirst thrust threat throat third* there* therefore* *short forms Top of page
(b) Two or more stroke outlines The form is used that gives a better join (clear angle of join, best hook, and similar motion of curves/hooks). If all else is equal, the right curve is preferable, because it then matches the R hooks on straight strokes, thus helping overall legibility: Left:
authoring affrighted affronted frighten fruity fraud Friday
frayed afraid fragile fridge free-hand* frank France
froth free-thinking* freckle frugal phrenetic frantic *3rd place vowel is placed against the Fer because 'hand' and 'think' are short forms
tougher duffer chafer Jeffrey/Geoffrey overalls* Avril Trevor driver *Vowel placed against Ell because 'over' is a short form
endeavour achiever Chivers jiver thievery arriver
verge converge leverage virtual vortices
vernacular verve verdant convertible vertical
authorship etherism ethernet (2 pronunciations) Right:
frap freebie Africa fresco fraction frequent frog
frame Ephraim freedom frump freeness* freesia *derivative retaining right curved form, despite the En stroke
frail frazzle free-hold frolic
freer fraternal French franchise frenzy
fragility fronted frightful puffer buffer coffer gaffer
loafer rougher refrigerator sniffer chamfer chauffeur
paver beaver believer cover giver lever/leaver silver
river weaver hover shaver mover Hannover hangover* *Vowel belongs with second word; being reversed, it does not count as short form here, therefore vowel is needed.
verb vertebra vortex verdict verdure vermin
throb throttle thread thrift thrive throng throwing feathery slithery Rotherham
thrum thrombosis thermal threesome thrill thrower thrush anther panther
thirteen thirty Thursday Luther lethargic Arthur arthritis arthritic arthropod
pother bather brother tether dither gather
leather writher weather heather zither farther but further furthered Notes:
affront affronted, confront* confronted*, front fronted *Under the rules, 'confront' would be a left curve but it is too close in meaning to affront, therefore it is written with the right curve, its '-con dot' keeping it different from 'front'.
Distinguishing outlines: afresh fresh, affranchise franchise Top of page
Reversed Forms, L Hook
 Reversal is not used for vowel indication.  The reversed form is only used after straight horizontals (Kay Gay En) 
and straight upstrokes (Ray, Way, Whay, Yay, upward Hay) to provide a better joining. Where the outline starts with an L hooked stroke, the left curve is always used. This includes those with a 'dot con-'. This matches with the L hook on straight strokes, which are all left curves, thus helping overall legibility.
(a) L-hooked stroke starts the outline:
flow aflow fly Eiffel fluster flutter
flap flab flatten flood flitch fledge Fletcher
flake flask flag flame aflame flump
flounce flannel flowing fling fluent affluent
flail flair/flare flower flour flurry flourish fleecy flash
soufflé safflower flagrant conflagration conflict conflation confluence
evil civil civilisation vulnerable vulture vulpine vulva* wildebeest (x2) *All other words beginning 'vul-' use stroke Ell
Ethel Ethelbert Ethelred (b) L-hooked stroke is in middle or end of outline: use left curve, unless reversed has better join (i.e. after Kay Gay En Ray Way Whay Yay upward Hay): Left:
piffle baffle briefly stifle toughly duffel/duffle acephalous
earful earflap actively alternatively develop privilege
bevel bravely travel drivel ogival devolve Pavlov Right:
gruffly unflagging inflow inflation inflame inflict
snowflake rifle ruffle reflect
waffle whiffle yaffle muffle mayflower
gravel gravely arrival marvel weevil hovel Yeoville
cavalry naval/navel anvil revel athletic* betrothal *Uses Thel to avoid an unwieldy outline
All other TH-L combinations use stroke Ell:
ethyl methyl ethal lethal Athol Athlone athlete
Bethel brothel withal lithely blithely authority authorise Notes:
envelope novelise ethereal level monthly Top of page
Reversed Forms, Derivatives There is normally an effort to preserve original forms in derivatives, but legibility always takes top priority:
free freed, fry fried, fruit fruited, lever leverage
fresh fresher freshly, garish garishly, rash rasher but rashly A medial circle keeps the strokes separate, in the same way that an angle does:
frost frosted but fret fretted Similar motion of curves and medial hooks gives a faster outline:
verse versicoloured versify versicle fever favour favoured but favourite Some awkward combinations:
inflationary inflationary* inflationism inflationist 'Inflationary' has a choice of full outline or contraction. For 'inflationism' and 'inflationist' a non-dictionary right-curve would be more legible.
reflation reflationary revaluation refloat refloated For 'reflationary' a non-dictionary contraction similar to 'inflationary' (i.e. right curve and omitting shun hook) is better. Any contraction decided upon must not clash with 'revaluation'. 'Refloated' is presumably disjoined, rather than using the awkward joining of the reversed form, to accord with 'floated'. Top of page
Suffixes -ful and -fully The suffix '-ful' and '-fully' are normally written the same as the single words:
full fully careful carefully lawful lawfully
In some cases using the hooked stroke gives a better outline and the final vowel inserted if thought necessary:
powerful powerfully joyful faithful hopeful skilful cheerful colourful Special case for Ing Ing plus R hook is not used for ing-er as one might expect, but instead for ing-ger (hard G) and ing-ker, as these are more common sounds: ing-ker and ing-ger:
pinker banker tanker dunker clinker conker/conquer/conger finger thinker
bankrupt bankruptcy*
fishmonger warmonger costermonger ironmongery* but mongrel *contraction Note:
Bangor clangour*
*'Clangour' can also be pronounced without hard G, like 'clanger'
ing-er is written by just adding Ar, which has the advantage of retaining the original form. Some dialects in UK pronounce a hard G in words like these but this is not taken into account in Pitman's Shorthand:
sing singer clang clanger swing swinger but singe singer (one who singes)
bang banger ring ringer hang hanger but hangar* *Formerly with hard G, but now pronounced like 'hanger'; derived not from 'hang' but from Medieval Latin angarium = shed
Although Ing can use the R hook, ing-ger and ink-ker can also be shown by doubling the stroke; this is used where the hooked form does not join easily, or if alone.
longer ranker/rancour winker hanker hunger/hunker
anger/anchor sinker Use Ger if there is a final vowel:
hungry/Hungary angry Ing does not take a large L hook, because that would not indicate the sound of hard G or K that occurs in the middle. Therefore, Gay or Kay with L Hook is used:
bungle tangle jungle mingle uncle Top of page
Halving a hooked stroke Hooked strokes can be halved for T/D, according to the normal rules:
babbled battered bottled uttered addled toggled giggled haggled
offered float afloat flit flint honoured tankard drunkard
angered lingered hungered feathered mothered measured ushered hammered R & L Hook in middle of outline
In most cases the hook is easily accommodated:
paper papal deeper deeply cater label loader liner earner
bicycle designer listener retrain restrain tunneller channelling Sometimes the hook has to be opened out or flattened slightly. The pen should flow into the hook smoothly with no undue effort at making a sharp angle. On no account should the pen be lifted from the paper. Do not curl the end of the hook round in an attempt to make it look like the normal full hook:
cheaper reply shipper taker docker trigger jogger vital Some Circle S + hook combinations in the middle of the outline need extra care to write clearly. A slight exaggeration of the size of the hook is unavoidable if the hook is to be seen at all, and giving the hook a very slight corner as it emerges from the stroke is helpful. It is safe to elongate the Circle S, as it will not clash with Stee loop which never crosses a stroke. Such expedients will keep the outline readable:
explain disbranch massacre miscreant gossamer This larger example shows the exact difference:
expose explain chasm gossamer If the hook cannot legibly be written, then Ar Ray or Ell must be used:
runner winner winery Henry runnel tamer dimmer The R is omitted in some words in order to secure a brief outline:
demonstrate* demonstration ministry* ministered transcript subscript subscriber *contractions
On curved strokes, Sway Circle/Stee Loop cannot be used at the same time as R or L hook:
swimmer swooner suaver swivel steamer stainer stinger Top of page
When not to use A distinct vowel between the consonant and the R or L sound generally requires separate strokes. This allows you to see how the word breaks into its natural syllables, thus aiding legibility:
pray par parry, play pal, average aver avarice
display dispel, flew full, flower failure, finger vinegar
ripper repair, ripple repeal, rebel rebel
personal personnel, milliner millionaire '-ery' '-ary' As the vowels are distinct, stroke Ray is used, so that the outline can be fully vocalised:
brave braver bravery, grain grainer granary, verse varies
refine refiner refinery, wafer midwifery Sometimes the consonant and the following R or L belong to different words, or word and suffix, and so separate strokes are used to accurately reflect the separate syllables:
thrum bathroom, masher mushroom, shrimp showroom
enabling sibling, dandruff woodruff midriff, usher ashery ashore Strokes not taking R or L hook Way, Yay, Hay, Kwa, Gwa cannot take an initial R or L hook because because they already have an initial attachment, as well as being unpronounceable without a vowel between. An R or L sound after them will use strokes. Ray, El, Ler.
 Ray with initial attachment would look like Way, Whay, Yay or upward  
Hay Ell with initial hook is used for Wel, Whel Ler already signifies two consonants
Ess, Zee, Ar, Rer do not take an initial R or L hook, because of the uncommonness of the combinations. Their initially hooked forms are 'borrowed' by F V Ith Thee as a reversed form, see explanation above. An R or L sound after them will use other strokes. N & F/V hook to straight strokes N is shown by a clockwise hook at the end of the stroke.
pen open bone bin ton dine done chain chin John Jane June
gain again rain terrain wine won/one win whine yen hen hone F or V is shown by an anticlockwise hook at the end of the stroke. The hook signifies either F or V and context is required to ascertain which one is meant. F and V are the least common sounds of all the hooks and, with judicious vowel insertion, this is not a problem in practice:
pave puff proof/prove reproof/reprove reprieve buff rebuff above brief deprive
tough tiff doff deaf chafe chief active attractive dive endive drive chive achieve
gave gaffe graph gruff grove groove grief/grieve aggrieve engrave
rough/ruff roof rife/rive rove tariff deserve reserve swerve sheriff
wife waif/wave weave whiff huff heave behave behoove Top of page
N hook to curved strokes N is shown by a small hook inside the end of the stroke:
fine fan fun phone fin often soften refine roughen
van vine vain/vane/vein even Evans riven heaven leaven Bevan
thin thane methane polythene marathon dethrone Nathan Athens
than then thine heathen leathern assign Essene zone ozone zen ocean Asian
man mine moon nine none impugn campaign campion Ell takes its N Hook at its end, whether upwards or downwards. An Ell standing alone is always written upwards and therefore a hook at the base is Wel and at the top is L-N. See also below When Not To Use/Downward Ell
lane lone/loan line fallen nylon aniline but will well
earn urn, fuller than, hang on (phrases) F or V cannot be shown by a final hook on a curved stroke, because attachments (circles, loops, hooks, attached vowels) are never written outside the curve, so a full stroke Eff or Vee must be used.
fife five Viv Vivian thief thieve arrive
sheaf shave love leaf muff move knife nave/knave Ish + N hook is used in those cases where the Shun Hook is not appropriate or convenient, mostly single stroke words and sometimes sh-nt/sh-nd:
shine shined Sean/Shaun shown sheen shin shinned
ashen machine ancient mentioned pensioned sanctioned Top of page
Hooks in middle of outline (a) The hook is used medially if it makes an easy and clear join:
penning paving profit prophet provide provoke perfect prefix
plenty planet browning bluffing briefing
traffic toughen telephone advance define defect defer diverse
driving divide drifting toning training dining draining tendency presidency
canning counting graining graphic organic
fanning fountain convenient Athenian manning mining (b) With horizontals and upstrokes, a hook may be impossible to write or the angle insufficient for clarity, so strokes En is used:
count counted, ground grounded, gift gifted
surround surrounded, rift rifted, wind windy, waft wafted
hound hounded, hand (short form) handy, heft hefty, iron* ironing* ironic *R sound is always shown, even though it is not pronounced in many English accents; exceptions only occur in a very few abbreviating devices.
mind minded, mound/mount mounted mountain maintain maintenance (c) Stroke En is used when it produces a more facile outline or to ensure distinguishing outlines, mainly before Chay/Jay and Ess/Zee:
plunge sponge expunge pinch poncho bench Benjamin blanch
drench drainage strange stringent tonnage tinge contingence change challenge impinge
but bandage appendage to avoid using a full stroke Dee
lunge lunch crunch munch dentist dental suddenly
mange manger manage manager mannish garnish regency Stroke En is preferable when it starts its own syllable, so long as the join remains good. Syllables generally have their own stroke, with abbreviating devices used for additional sounds within the syllable. In practice you will omit most vowels and the remaining consonant structure of the outline generally lets you know where the syllables break and where the vowels are:
lemonade panacea lunacy compare mend/meant pansy fancy brilliancy solvency
Barton Morton Martin compare baritone puritan Samaritan
bountiful panache compare painful punish banish Spanish replenish brandish
lioness zoneless Zionist compare lions zones Zion's (d) The hook may need to be opened out slightly to join the next stroke:
chiefly jovial ignominy canary appendix opencast penmanship (e) Medial N hook is not used if it unbalances the outline. If both attachments are on the same side of a straight stroke and therefore written in the same direction, the outline would tend to curve and become illegible at speed. This mostly occurs in past tenses with the suffix '-ted' and '-ded':
paint painted plant planted but print printed, sprint sprinted, misprint misprinted
grant granted, ground grounded, graft grafted, decant decanted
band banded blend blended, attend attended but brand branded, strand stranded
appended abandoned expended responded supplanted disappointed* suspended* *Although the attachments are on the same side, the initial stroke helps to keep the second stroke straight, therefore N Hook can be used.
Note compound words: up-end up-ended print-out bran-tub Top of page
Vocalisation The stroke is vocalised as normal, with a third place vowel being written outside the hook. The stroke is read first, then the vowel, then the hook.
pan pen bin bon bun boon tine join town tune
open happen ribbon fatten adjoin pigeon attune If the next syllable starts with a vowel, the vowel sign is placed against the next stroke, as it is spoken after the N sound:
opening open-air open-eyed defence/defense plantain A fully vocalised outline will generally have a vowel sign after the stroke and before the N or F/V hook, even if that vowel is slurred or unaccented (unlike some of unaccented vowels with the R & L hooks):
eaten pardon deaden kitchen kitten reckon dozen raisin exception: cousin* *The dictionary outline gives no second vowel for this word, despite its similarity to dozen and raisin. A third-place light dot vowel would be appropriate, if vowel insertion was felt necessary. Top of page
Halving and doubling The stroke is read first, then the hook, then the halving or doubling sound. It is easier to remember if you think of the hooked stroke as being halved or doubled:
pen penned/pent, pave paved, puff puffed, pine pint/pined, bone boned, buff buffed
tone toned, tough toughed/tuft, drain drained, drive drift, gain gained, gave gift
chain chained, chuff chuffed, jive jived, win wind went, wave waved, wife waft
hone honed, heave heaved, rain rained, rough/ruff roughed/ruffed, rave raved
fine fined/find, vain/vane/vein vent event, thin thinned, assign assigned
shun shunned/shunt, man manned, nine anoint, lean leaned, earn earned
ponder tender canter render winter minder fender venture Circles or loops are read last of all, after the hook and the halving/doubling:
bone bones, bond bonds, bounder bounders
pain pains, paint paints, painter painters
spin spins spinster spinsters, Dan dance dances danced
dove doves, drift drifts, drifter drifters
fine fines, find/fined finds, finder finders
lean leans, lend/Lent lends, lender lenders
rain rains, rent/rend rents/rends, render renders, raft rafts, rafter rafters
hunt hunts, hunter hunters, win wins, wonder wonders The only time the hook is read after a halving or doubling sound is when the hook is used in a few phrases to represent another whole word. This goes against the rule for the order in which the elements are read – the rule is always observed within a word, and only occasionally broken for adding a word in a phrase. The instances of such phrases are few but the usefulness gained is worthwhile, and no clashes will be found: serVeD, leNDer (normal order within a single word) sorT oF, laTer oN (phrase order)
part, part of, sort, sort of but parts of, sorts of compare bereft served
later on/later than, further on/further than compare lender fender If the N hook is already in use in the main word, you cannot then make it do double duty for the next word in the phrase as well, such as 'kinder than' 'blunder on' 'gift of' 'bereft of'. Derivatives Derivatives will not always retain the N hook of the primitive outline, they will vary according to the subsequent strokes, vowels, and attachments that are involved, in exactly the same way as spoken words change their syllable stress and their vowels. This also applies to words that are not derivatives but share the same consonant structure. Where the syllable after the N F or V is unaccented, a following R- or Lhooked stroke or full strokes are often used, producing a better reflection of the pronunciation and therefore more legible outlines:
prefer proffer, discovery discover, refer roofer
defer deferential, differ differential
brave bravery braveness bravest braver bravely
grave graver engraver gravely graveness
tough toughness tougher toughly, midwife midwifery wafer Derivatives may replace a stroke with a hook, or vice versa, to accommodate vowels or suffixes, or to obtain a compact or faster outline:
serve serving served server servery service servant serval
solidify solidified, electrify electrification, deviate deviation
pains painstaking painless, found founder foundry foundation founded
geographic geographical geography geographer In some cases distinguishing outlines are needed:
refer referee reference, revere reverie reverence
provide proviso providence, pervade pervasive, perverse perversion
situation station, divide defied Top of page
When not to use When N is the only stroke, no hook is possible:
sun stone swoon When a final vowel follows the N F or V sound, the stroke En is used. Thus the existence of a final vowel is indicated without actually writing it:
pen penny, puff puffy, proof/prove privy, Ben Benny, Bev bevy
tune tuna, toff toffee, Dan Danny, Dave Davey
cough coffee, cave cavy, gran granny
men many, nan nanny, Len Lenny
earn/Ern Ernie, run runny, rave revenue
wave wavy, win winnow, hone honey, heave heavy Where a medial hook would be illegible or cannot be written, use full strokes:
defame prevail defile cavity gravity refuge refuse reveal When the N sound is preceded by a circle or loop, there is no stroke to put a hook on. In these cases using stroke En is the only option and therefore does not indicate a following vowel:
prison basin treason design chosen Jason suggestion
fasten ensign monsoon reason hasten
After a curved stroke, when adding a Ses, Stee or Ster loop after the N sound, the full stroke En is required, in order to be able to write the circle or loop:
fine finest mean meanest minster minister lenses With straight strokes, a full stroke En is needed if there is a vowel before the ST:
keenest canister compare against canst A few words retain the hook and used halved Ess for the '-est' sound, to gain a better outline:
kindest grandest earnest plainest toughest Use stroke N after a triphone starting with diphthong U:
genuine pursuance continuant constituent compare constant continent After other triphones, and diphones, N hook is used:
buoyancy truant neon client gradient expedient ebullient diaphanous Some exceptions to above:
buoyant truancy triune Rayon ruin ruined fluent fluency affluent confluent pioneer Following a curve, a final NS sound is always stroke En plus Circle S. As such words are not plurals, the stroke En allows easy derivatives to be formed (explained in full on Theory 4 Circles/S versus Z sound page):
NZ sound: fens NS sound: fence fencing You cannot use the NS circle (i.e. hook N closed up into a circle to indicate NS) medially between two strokes because that would rely on the direction of the circle. As the direction of a medial circle is decided by convenience only, its direction cannot indicate an N Hook (see Theory 4 Circles/Medial Circles for fuller explanation).
dusty density destroy, expense expensive (short form) expensiveness, pens pencil Paisley
prince princeling princess principled prosper precept In the following outlines the NS/NZ circle is being used to show the N, but that is allowed because there is no other stroke immediately following, only the small shun hook:
compensation condensation transition transitional compare compensatory transit In some cases it is possible to show the medial hook followed by Circle S. These need extra care to write clearly and it is helpful to exaggerate the length of the hook and the flattened circle (see also explanation of R Hooks in middle of outline which have a similar formation):
ransom kinsman lonesome winsome hansom (but handsome derivative of 'hand') Downward Ell is generally an upstroke, but an initial Ell is written downwards before horizontals (Kay, Gay, En, Em, Ing) to show that there is a vowel before the Ell, and then stroke En is used, because an N Hook would make the Ell look like Wel. Using stroke N in such cases does not necessarily signify a following vowel:
alone lone/loan well
Inside curves As with other hooks to curves, the Shun Hook is always written inside the curve, never outside. It is written approximately one third the length of the stroke (the same size as the L hook on curved strokes):
fashion fission fusion infusion confusion fruition Friesian
vision television evasion invasion innovation renovation deprivation
conservation starvation devotion elevation session concession botheration
association* appreciation depreciation differentiation propitiation initiation emaciation *See alternative outline below
mission omission permission submission motion promotion locomotion
remission intermission animation transmission* ambition impassion nation donation *N omitted
attention intention ammunition diminution admonition explanation clinician
function junction unction compunction distinction extinction sanction (K sound omitted)
lotion lesion convolution revolution revelation volition
annihilation relation ablution erosion oration You cannot combine the large Shun Hook with N Hook, the full stroke N must be used:
pension expansion mention mansion tension contention pretension detention Top of page
Straight strokes:
The Shun Hook can be written on either side of a straight stroke, according to the following rules. It is written approximately one third the length of the stroke (the same size as the hooks in Kwa and Gwa). Balancing the outline takes precedence over rules (b) and (c): (a) Balancing the outline The Shun Hook is written on the opposite side to an initial attachment (circle, loop or hook), to help the outline remain straight when written at speed. If the attachments at each end were on the same side, the stroke would tend to curve and become illegible:
suppression conception reception, completion compression
depletion depression, implosion impression, explosion expression
station citation superstition* sedation sedition consideration contrition *Dictionary has a U diphthong for 'super' but this is no longer a common pronunciation
secretion seclusion, concretion conclusion, accretion occlusion
celebration conflagration incursion oppression appropriation refrigeration
abrasion hesitation intrusion extrusion Prussian Goshen* *dictionary outline, some books give downwards stroke Ish for Goshen
Two straight strokes in the same direction also require their attachments balancing:
probation approbation correction collection A preceding curved stroke that makes no angle with the straight stroke requires to balanced, for the same reason, i.e. to to prevent outline becoming one long indeterminate and illegible curve:
vacation invocation fiction affection confection infection affliction
location selection hypothecation* *slight but insufficient angle, therefore needs balancing
The strokes that have initial attachment as part of their basic form also need to observe balance, as there is the same tendency to curve the outline:
persuasion cohesion adhesion equation Top of page
(b) Away from the preceding vowel If there is no balancing required, then the direction of the Shun Hook is able to indicate the presence of a vowel, without actually writing it. The hook is written on the opposite side of the preceding vowel. Mnemonic: the hook 'shuns' the vowel:
option passion potion, action occasion, auction caution cushion, defection deification
portion Persian operation apparition, abortion aberration, aspersion aspiration
education diction, induction indication, election allocation allegation
direction* attraction refraction reflection Egyptian adoption distribution libation *2 pronunciations
contraction construction constriction complexion application inaction embrocation
ration variation discolouration (discoloration) maceration laceration
Polynesian Melanesian Caucasian decoction Eurasian but Australasian 'er-shun' uses Ray rather than Ar as it keeps the outline moving forward and is therefore quicker and more legible:
insertion coercion immersion diversion inversion introversion* Martian * doubled 'intro-' has no dot vowel, but 'inter-' always does
But version marchioness Top of page
(c) After Tee Dee Jay As there is always a vowel between a Tee, Dee or Jay, and the Shun Hook, it is not necessary to indicate its presence, and therefore, if there is no balancing required, the Shun Hook is written on the right hand side (anticlockwise) in order to keep the outline moving forward:
edition addition audition rotation notation annotation salutation
tradition transportation* erudition liquidation logician magician *N omitted Top of page
Small Shun Hook The small Shun Hook can be used after a Circle S or En Hook+Circle S by continuing the motion of the circle. The end of the hook is level with the end of the stroke:
composition compensation decision condensation
taxation vexation acquisition inquisition
cessation conversation musician incision sensation
authorisation sterilisation pulsation canalisation A preceding third place dot vowel or diphone is shown next to the small Shun Hook; second place vowels are not indicated; first place vowels do not occur between S-Shun:
precession precision decision
pronunciation denunciation renunciation annunciation but enunciation* *To distinguish it from 'annunciation'
Association Below is an advanced non-dictionary outline that reflects its alternative pronunciation 'asso-SI-ashun', and its use is worth considering, as it is such a common word. Its representation in phrases is however normal theory that you will find in instruction books (although the Circle S in the phrases is representing the first S sound i.e. 'so-shun'):
association, regional association, medical association, political association Derivatives of this, as well as similar words and their derivatives (appreciation etc, see above) all use stroke Ish and this should be adhered to, as not all of them can be pronounced with the S sound as an alternative. To 'convert' them all would create clashes, unreliability and ultimately
hesitation. The S sound seems to be preferred when there are two SH's in the word, which can be awkward to say clearly. See also Theory 4 Circles/Small Shun Hook Top of page
Adding S Circle S can be added to both large and small Shun Hooks:
actions fashions decisions conversations The Shun hooks do not take Stee or Ster loops, or any other hooks. The Circle S may end up slightly flattened into a small loop but should be kept small. The Shun Hook to should not be allowed to sprawl, to avoid mistaking it for a full stroke. Imagine these pairs written less than neatly and without vowels:
actions anxious, fashions fishes, editions dishes Words written in longhand with double SS are still just plain Shun, do not be tempted by the longhand spelling to insert an additional Circle S:
passion compare position, impression compare imprecision Top of page
In middle of outline Medial Shun Hooks generally join well, although in some joins the large hook needs to be opened out slightly.
optional sectional rational additional conditional traditional
emotional promotional national notional occasional exceptional
affectionate extortionate confectioner commissioner conditioner probationer pensioner* *Ray is used in 'shun-er' when it makes a better join than Ar
dictionary revolutionary visionary cautionary discretionary confectionery missionary
positional transitional conversational conversationalist sensational sensationalism
actionable fashionable impressionable impressionism The direction of the Shun Hook is maintained when it is used medially, but in a few words it changes sides in order to join the last syllable:
station stationery* stationary* dispassion dispassionate *How to remember the difference: Stationery (=paper) ends in ER like paper Stationary (=motionless) ends in AR like parked car
Shun Hook cannot take a loop, therefore '-shun-ist' uses a halved Ess, either up or down:
perfectionist revolutionist educationist revisionist '-s-shun-ist' needs expanding to full strokes:
succession successionist opposition oppositionist conversation conversationist Some endings have to be disjoined or use full strokes for the 'shun':
pensionable mentionable sanctionable Small Shun Hook can be used medially in derivatives:
positional positioned positioning requisitioned Top of page
On a halved stroke The Shun Hook is written about half the length of the halved stroke and the T or D is sounded last:
actioned conditioned rationed fashioned motioned provisioned functioned
But sanctioned impassioned affectioned With stroke En, halved stroke Ish is preferred, because the join between a full stroke and a halved En would have no angle and be illegible:
pensioned tensioned mentioned
Note that the halvings above only represent D, mostly past tenses. For the SH-NT sound, use Ish and not the Shun Hook, because they are not derivatives of any word that uses Shun:
ancient omniscient prescient* impatient* patient* compare passionate which has a vowel before the T *full Ish, because lack of sharp angle: halving would be acceptable (as it 'brushed' 'pushed') but with the hook as well the outline would become indistinct Top of page
When not to use After a triphone (mostly long U diphthong plus another vowel), the stroke Ish is used to provide distinguishing outlines:
situation station, evacuation vacation, graduation gradation
continuation contention, extenuation extension
tuition striation* evaluation valuation** **short form
*upwards Ish to balance the outline
The following words use the Shun Hook despite the triphone, in order to avoid a very long outline and as they are unlikely to clash with another word:
accentuation fluctuation infatuation insinuation perpetuation punctuation superannuation* *Dictionary has a U diphthong for 'super' but this is no longer a common pronunciation
Shun Hook is used after diphones:
radiation mediation aviation deviation alleviation Some words look like shun but on closer inspection they do not contain the SH sound:
T sound (often slurring to CH): question exhaustion combustion bastion fustian suggestion
S or Z sound: hessian Parisian Elysian (a) Thin stroke is halved to add T sound:
pat apt tapped wrapped spot sapped supped sipped prate plate sprint stopped swept
taut tight teat treat straight strut street chat chit itched stitched switched
cat act sacked stacked staked stickered stroked skate scoot ached crate cleat
pricked backed blocked tacked/tact tract/tracked racked docked mocked knocked
fat fight fought fraught fright flight float flit aft soft sift swift staffed fluffed
thought threat throat east iced shot shoot brushed crashed fished light slight let lit
wilt welt wet wit yet yacht hat hot heat height quote quit squat Use stroke Dee to add D sound to a thin stroke:
pad paid prod pride/pried prayed sprayed played splayed plead plied
tad Ted toad tread trod stride strode strayed strewed/Strood chide chewed
code kid keyed clad cried skid skied cowed crowd screwed
fad fade feed fried frayed freed Fred thud thread shade showed shred
led lead sled willed wild wide wade/weighed head yawed quad squad Top of page
(b) Thick stroke is halved to add D sound:
bad bed bid bride bread/bred braid/brayed breed blade sobbed stubbed swabbed
dad dead did died dried jawed jade edged pledged staged caged
good God guide egged sagged tagged dogged nagged mugged swigged glowed
grade/greyed/grayed void sieved staved bathed* breathed clothed *past tense of bathe
seethed soothed smoothed swathed zed eased oozed Use stroke Tee to add T sound to a thick stroke:
bat bought boat boot bright brought blight bloat bleat
dot debt date jet jut get goat gloat greet grate* vet vote *great is a short form, halved
Essentially, halving these short words keeps the light/unvoiced sounds together and the heavy/voiced sounds together. This occurs naturally in English when there is no vowel between e.g. 'apt' and 'ebbed'. There are a great number of such short words in English and as these outlines contain minimal information when unvocalised, this rule provides a degree of
differentiation. It might be easier to remember thus: halve for two thins or two thicks. Top of page
(c) Final hook If there is a final hook, halving can signify either T or D, for both thin and thick strokes. This allows many past tenses to be formed without changing the form. The T or D is spoken after the hook sound:
pint/pined, puffed paved, bent/bend, briefed braved, brand brunt, stand stint, zoned
tint/tinned, dint/dinned, dived daft, chant chained, joint/joined, cant/canned can't
scanned/scant, cleaned Clint, gaunt gained, grant ground, graft grooved, fent/fend
font fond, fount found, vent/vend, shunt/shunned shined, learnt/learned Note: learnèd (d) Final attached diphthong Halving can signify either T or D, for both thin and thick strokes:
proud ploughed/plowed pout bowed* browed tout trout doubt drought *rhyming with 'loud'
cute/cued/queued skewed spewed spout viewed vowed stout Stroud*
*Dictionary outline, but stroke D would be clearer if the place name is unfamiliar
In plurals, the vowel is no longer joined and so the outline reverts to rule (a) and (b) above, i.e. write both strokes if one is thick and one is thin:
bout bouts doubt doubts drought droughts feud feuds Outlines that represent 'two thins or two thicks' can retain their halving in the plural, they are not relying on an attached diphthong to be allowed to halve:
pout pouts sprout sprouts tout touts trouts mute mutes newt newts nude nudes
Exception: swerve swerved because it would not be clear to write Circle Sway and a hook on the same side of a halved stroke. Top of page
Words of more than one syllable (a) General rule is that halving can represent either T or D, regardless of whether the halved stroke is thick or thin. The more strokes or attachments that an outline has, the easier it is to read, and so there is less need for the restrictive rule that covers monosyllables:
inept tepid insipid reptile rapid abrupt morbid rabbit rabid abide debit
seated seeded studied studded stated added wedded wetted
expedite credit budget budged offered suffered severed cravat
method epithet complied complete supplied displayed
uttered ordered settled criticised ostracised measured treasured leisured
complaint/complained, restraint/restrained, content/contend, system issued Past tenses in '-ed' generally halve the last stroke, and therefore the outline will sometimes change slightly. You cannot just add stroke Dee to the end of the existing outline. As a rule outlines with similar sounds have similar outlines and do not show differences based on what part of speech it is (although some clashes do need to be dealt with by having distinguishing outlines):
note noted intend intended respond responded waft wafted (b) Some two-syllable words obey the monosyllable rule: Some to provide distinguishing pairs:
sacred secret, applaud applied, asset assayed aside acid Note also: acidic acetic
Some because, despite their 2 syllables, halving would produce an outline as short as the monosyllables, and so there is the same need for differentiation between T and D:
afraid echoed stupid abate abut/abbot edit audit sedate Top of page
(c) An initial stroke halved generally follows the thin/T thick/D rule:
protection protagonist pretext potable bedlam badminton The opposite combination uses full stroke:
product prediction podium bottom bitumen detail deter deteriorate glutinous
academic schedule credulous
Exceptions: between contradict detect detached determine Top of page
Ray halved for T is never used standing alone, or alone with only a final Circle S, to avoid similarity with short forms 'and' and 'should', and a halved Chay (see also the Extra Care section below):
rat rate rot rut right/rite/write/Wright rote/wrote writ writs/Ritz irate
rights/rites/writes/Wright's rates roots, and is/and his, should his It may be halved if it has an initial circle or loop, a final hook or when joined to another stroke.
sort concert round rant/Rand surround rift raved
certain ascertain certify part parrot carrot curate accurate temperate
artist article artifice artificial rationed apportioned If there is no final hook, use stroke Dee for a following D:
ride road reed hurried horrid torrid lurid parade charade
Exceptions: writing written compare righting rotten Halved Ray is used finally for -art, also for -ard where stroke Ard cannot be joined:
starred start paired part
gear geared, gore gored, colour coloured, tailor tailored
hazard mansard Hansard Top of page
Hay: if there is only one stroke in the outline, use upward Hay halved for T. If hooked, halve for either T or D:
hat hats hot height heat hint hunt honed hound haft heaved If there is no hook, use stroke Dee:
hide head heed haddock hewed/hued* Note: hew/hue
*Despite the final joined diphthong in hew/hue, if halved the Hay would then be alone and unhooked, and therefore could only signify T, not D.
Retain the form in derivatives wherever possible:
heat heating heated, hide hiding hidden, head heading headed
hunt hunting hunted, hot hottest
hatbox hat-trick hotbed hotness hateful When there are other strokes in the outline, up or downward Hay halved may be used for either T or D as convenient:
behind behaved heterodox heterogeneous cowhide go-ahead Overall, on an unhooked upward Hay, it is safe to halve for T and use stroke Dee for D. The two outlines 'cowhide' and 'go-ahead' seem to be the only examples of Hay being halved for D.
overheat overhead dead-heat dead-head Top of page
Way Yay Halve for T; if hooked, halve for either T or D:
white wait want/wand went/wend wind wind waft waved/waived yet yacht yawned If there is no hook, use stroke Dee:
wide wade weed wood you'd yawed The endings '-ward- wart -wort -yard' are described on Theory 20 Contracted Suffixes page. Top of page
Extra care with straight strokes: If written perfectly, at the correct angle and length, there is no clash between the following pairs, but at speed this small distinction may suffer and it is important to be aware of the necessity to maintain accurate outlines:
rinds similar to as the/has the – rounds similar to is the/his the – hat similar to chats
spot similar to as to/as of – pots similar to of us/of his – pits similar to to us/to his
tights similar to on us/on his Rising strokes such as 'and' 'should' Ray and Hay must keep their shallow angle. As the examples above are different parts of speech, that helps greatly in reading back, but similar pairs that are the same parts of speech
present the greatest danger of misreading. If you write extremely small outlines, the distinctions will be more difficult to maintain. Top of page
Em En Ell Ar These strokes in their plain unhooked form are halved as normal for T:
mat meet moat omit emit summit smote remit remote permit promote
not/knot note neat ant scent* present pleasant descent intellect internal *'sent' is a short form, above the line, to distinguish it from 'send'
pelt bolt tilt dealt jolt kilt gilt/guilt fault felt volt
melt moult smelt knelt insult little lilt ultimate halt hilt
art artful heart/hart hurt hurts/Hertz desert/dessert When halved for D in their plain unhooked form, these strokes are thickened, in order to provide a more distinctive outline: (a) Em and En M-D and N-D strokes are not compound consonants, as they can have a vowel inbetween:
mad mode mood amid middle timid seemed steamed hemmed gummed
slimmed armed rhymed roamed roomed assumed presumed framed
need nod end owned annoyed sand send sound stoned stained swooned
renewed defend/deafened designed thousand recommend command commend ST-N-T/D: for root words, use the formation as in 'stand'; for past tenses, keep the original form:
stand, stunt stunted, stone stoned, stain stained When a halved M or N is also hooked, this can signify either T or D, as do all hooked thin strokes, and no thickening is required (thickened hooked form belongs to Imp/Imb/Ing):
manned mend/meant mint cement summoned
remind demand lament payment bemoaned anoint renowned lenient
simmered hammered rumoured mannered honoured innards tunnelled channelled Top of page
(b) Eld Ard The strokes Eld and Ard are compound consonants, they do not have a vowel inbetween. They are always written downwards, as no thick stroke is ever written upwards:
old ailed pulled pooled boiled tiled retailed detailed doled
chilled jailed galled killed skilled failed field fields
revealed mould/mold moulding/molding mailed mildly pummelled nailed kneeled
lulled cancelled excelled puzzled bustled bristled tasselled jostled
rolled world whirled overhauled behold foothold withhold
Stroke Eld cannot have any attachments if standing alone, and such words need full strokes. It can be joined in a phrase/compound word:
sold sailed styled oldest hold/holed healed wild but Oldham, old age, oldwife Use full strokes if Eld cannot be written:
muzzled whistled embezzled shield shelled assailed hustled
scheduled quarrelled swirled unfurled Stroke Ard is used when there is a vowel before, and no final vowel after:
aired erred card cord coward hard hardly hardest hoard heard unheard arduous
ordeal ordain ordinal ordinary extraordinary spared
prepared shared stared required afford conferred
deplored marred pondered slandered standard Note: standardise
Exception: assured retains its form in assuredly assuredness, these two are the only instances where there is a vowel between, although it is very lightly sounded. Ard is able to take an initial Sway Circle, Stee Loop or W-sign, and Circle S either end:
ward wired sired sword swords sward stored stirred steered Sometimes Ray is used for the -erd sound where it makes for a quicker outline or where Ard does not join easily:
referred preferred deferred answered censored wondered wintered If there is a vowel between L & D and R & D sounds, compound consonants are inappropriate and full strokes are used:
laid lid load followed valued allowed allayed relayed unload truckload
red/read reed/read arid married narrowed queried salaried Top of page
Ing These strokes cannot be halved in their plain form, as those shapes are used for the halved and thickened versions of Em En Ell Ar, where they are of more use because of their greater frequency. Ing plus T or D needs to have the full stroke added, as the halved form is unavailable, being allocated to N-D. The lightly sounded K sound that comes inbetween the two is omitted:
distinct instinct adjunct banged wronged
longed belonged prolonged hanged* *Some regional British accents pronounce a hard G at the end of such words as 'long' 'hang' but this is not shown in Pitman's Shorthand.
Note: ink inked wink winked show the K because it is part of the original outline. Ing may be halved if hooked for R, and the light K or G sound is omitted:
anchored/angered blinkered tankard drunkard fingered lingered hungered/hunkered Top of page
Ler Rer These are never halved, such combinations use full strokes:
coloured tailored mirrored reared lured leered Compound words (a) Second word of the compound begins with T or D The first word of the compound does not use halving to indicate the T or D of the following word, as this would obscure where the syllables naturally split. Keeping both words in their normal form is more legible:
tabletop* half-tone half-dozen half-time full-time write-up *Disjoining would also be acceptable, to avoid invading line below
Some common words override this rule to make a briefer outline:
beforetime beforehand sometimes Some phrases also use halving for a T or D that rightly belongs to the next word, or even a whole word like 'it' and 'to'. They can do this because
phrasing is a matter of choice and you would only use it if you felt it was readable and convenient:
at one time, considerable time, if it is possible, I am unable to (b) Either word of the compound ends in T or D The compound word as a whole is treated the same as a word of more than one syllable. One of the words may end up halved, and so be written differently than when standing alone:
copy right but copyright, up right but upright, right angle but right-angle
brush wood but brushwood, go ahead but go-ahead, cow hide but cowhide Top of page
Vowel placement Vowels are placed to the stroke as normal, and read before or after that stroke. The three places of the vowels are closer together along the stroke, so that more care is needed when inserting them.
 A vowel spoken before the T or D is placed against the halved stroke  A vowel sounded after the T or D is written against the following stroke When you have such a medial T or D, or a medial circle or hook, you must remember that the vowel sound cannot 'jump' over it. Each vowel sign must stay with its own stroke, and so the rule regarding putting a third-place vowel against the next stroke does not apply here:
Pitman goodness goodwill biddable cottage potato First up or downstroke of outline is halved The first up or downstroke is the one that is placed in position to match the vowel, and it continues to do so even if halved. Any downstrokes following it may end up going through the line, but that is irrelevant, only the first up or downstroke needs to be in position. Do not raise the outline up further to get other strokes off the line:
ostensible creditable inestimable Top of page
Order of reading final attachments
   
The stroke and any final hook are read together Next read the T or D sound Next read Circle S 'Dot -ing' is last of all
pan pant pants dancing renting rantings Loops after halving occur in only a few words:
midst amidst bidst didst For comparison, note that if the S or ST comes before the T or D, the formation is entirely different:
pots but post/posed posted
boats boating but boast boasted boasting
meets meetings midst but mist misted misting This order of reading always applies within outlines, but in some phrases it is overridden because of their great usefulness. Note that the hook is being used to indicate another complete word, not a sound within a word:
part of, sort of, in spite of, instead of, state of Top of page
When not to use (a) Final Vowel When a final vowel follows the T or D sound, a full stroke T or D is necessary in order to place the vowel sign, thus indicating the existence of a final vowel without actually writing it:
pit pity bud buddy tat tatty dad daddy
chat chatty Jude Judy kit kitty good goody fat fatty
avid video meat meaty mid media knot knotty need needy
lot Lottie late latte wit witty hat Hattie The presence of the full Tee or Dee stroke at the end of an outline does not always mean that a vowel follows, because the monosyllable rule above sometimes requires a full stroke for other reasons. In such cases inserting the last vowel should be considered, and always inserted in names:
pad Paddy bat batty Ted Teddy dot dotty
jet jetty cad caddy get Getty fad faddy
Fred Freddy shade shady lad laddie
red ready wood woody head heady
(b) Allowing full vocalisation Halving is not used where this would prevent the full vocalisation of the outline. This generally occurs where a medial T or D sound is followed by a Circle S, which itself cannot be vocalised, thus requiring a stroke against which to write the vowel that comes after the T (underlined):
anticipate antiseptic reticent criticism
absolutism conservatism egotism participle catastrophe Most outlines are constructed to enable full vocalisation, and abbreviation methods generally take a lower priority. The lack of somewhere to put a vowel sign would imply that there is no vowel to place, thus reducing legibility. Exceptions are made on an individual basis to gain a more facile outline, so long as it remains readable (unwritable vowels underlined):
despotism protestation pragmatism patriotism favouritism scepticism rheumatism (c) Joining strokes of differing lengths Strokes of differing lengths must show a clear angle of join. If no clear angle can be made, halving is avoided and other methods must be used: Use full strokes:
popped propped propound bobbed bribed blabbed churched judged
cooked cracked fact liked select conflict
milked thicket gagged aggregate segregate navigate
quaked squeaked entirety* patina fatigue integer nightmare *Dictionary gives no vowel for the second 'e', as it is barely spoken
rotary notary territory tonight intimate
award abhorred adhered dwarfed
obstinate platypus dominate discriminate minute animate
mashed smashed famished ambushed polished abolished Use disjoining. Note that it is the last stroke that is halved. In everyday shorthand the vowels are omitted and so the disjoined strokes can be written closer to the rest of the outline:
dated dieted attitude credited dictated agitated devastated facilitated
frustrated gravitated hesitated illustrated imitated incapacitated
necessitated maltreated situated mis-stated overstated but stated restated
precipitated rehabilitated reinstated rotated irritated stratify
traded intruded* protruded* tightened detained deadened *Examples of how the disjoined strokes are closer when the outlines are not vocalised, this applies to all.
aptness badness madness boldness broadness candidness multitudinous A change of thickness may provide a reasonable angle with halved curves, but not with a succession of straight strokes:
discard arrived named conferred interfered veered* mediate intermediate *This does have a change of thickness, because curved strokes are only thick in the middle.
denote badinage bleeped biped probate probed
clogged evict vacate revoked Sometimes the angle has to be made a little sharper on purpose to show up the join:
assuage death-bed (compare with the smoother join in sausage Thebes) Wedgwood Two half length strokes may be joined as long as there is a clear angle, otherwise use full strokes or disjoin:
protect altitude latitude dedicate deduct indicate integrate
aptitude platitude meditate medicate intent intend estimate
Compare chit-chat catgut bedpost litigant The sounds of -NT -ND would normally be achieved by adding N hook and halving the preceding stroke, but in the following words that would not produce any angle of join. There is no choice but to use a halved stroke En, and its use does not therefore always indicate a vowel between the N and the T or D:
Medial hook to produce a join: definite defend toughened tenant pennant
Medial hook for better join: prevent profound convenient
Other halved strokes: likened quickened thickened vacant inherent
For two lots of medial nt/nd, halve both: accountant redundant abundant dependant Top of page
(d) Shun Hooks & Circle Ses With the large Shun Hook, the stroke is halved as normal, but after the small Shun Hook and Circle Ses, use stroke D:
actioned fashioned positioned requisitioned exercised emphasized (e) Derivatives generally retain their original form, which increases legibility:
paid unpaid repaid but rapid, played replayed but replied replete rippled
decked bedecked but abdicate induct
pitiful decode encode undivided undefeated rowboat overrate overcrowd
outspread rightness haughtiness weightiness greediness flightiness
Exceptions for brevity: beautify beautiful undefiled indebted subdivide Top of page
(f) A final syllable that is accented or has a very clearly pronounced vowel may use full stroke T or D:
part parade, bricked bracket brocade, blocked blockade, decked docket decade
arced arcade orchid, rabbit rebut rebate, stooped stupid, hotly hotel
flannelled flannelette, leathered leatherette, casket cascade, knocked naked
passioned passionate, kitchen kitchenette, need Enid, sinned Synod
Exception: bicycle bicyclette*
*= Dictionary, but stroke Tee would give a more
reliable distinction
(g) After triphones the full stroke T or D is used. The past tense is shown also with each example:
accentuate/d, infatuate/d insinuate/d perpetuate/d
fluctuate/d punctuate/d situate/d graduate/d
statuette diadem avowedly quiet diet suet Normally halvaing for past tenses occurs on the last stroke, but outlines like 'accentuate' have pushed the halving back onto the stroke before, in order to have a full stroke T to accompany the triphone. This also allows derivatives to match. Compare with:
accent accented unfit unfitted (h) Diphones Halving proceeds as normal after most diphones:
abbreviate obviate affiliate appreciate appropriate create delineate humiliate infuriate
luxuriate permeate nauseate negotiate radiate repudiate fluid superfluous* *Dictionary has diphthong 'U' for the first vowel, but that pronunciation has become less common
expiate but poet poetic, conciliate but silhouette Top of page
An R sound following a T or D may require the use of an R Hook on a stroke Tee or Dee, thus making unnecessary any halving of the preceding stroke:
patron retrograde hydrogen hydraulic Names sometimes use full strokes in preference to using abbreviating devices. This improves legibility, although the outlines may be slightly slower to write. This is especially important as context cannot help. Vocalisation is often easier, and avoids ambiguities, such as whether a halving means T or D, or a hook means F or V:
Margate Margaret Highgate McLeod Rutland Bedale
Pendennis Dudley Thetford Shetland QUICK REFERENCE TABLE DOUBLED -ter STROKE
-THer (voiced)
-ker -ger

With attachments
With attachments
With attachments

Use stroke Ar

Use stroke TR, or omit light P & use M
 Only if has N hook -


With attachments
With attachments
Position and vocalisation The vowel added by the doubling syllable is never shown in the outline, and indeed cannot be shown as there is nowhere to write it. As its vowel is slurred, this is not a problem. Doubling is not used when the vowel is an accented one, full strokes are used, to enable the outline to be vocalised. Doubled strokes are not quite so straightforward as normal length strokes to place in position: Downstrokes all go through the line, as their angle is steep and crossing the line cannot be avoided. It is possible to start first position outlines higher up, but this does not really make a lot of difference and should not be relied upon. Occasional extra vocalisation would be a wise precaution. Upstrokes are written at a shallower angle, taking up less vertical space, and they can therefore have the normal three positions. This is easier to achieve because the lowest part of the stroke is at the beginning – there is slightly more control over the beginning part of any stroke or outline than at the end. Horizontal strokes are positioned as normal, i.e. above the line for first position, and on the line for second and third positions. Where the doubled stroke is not the one that is being put in position (i.e. it is not the first up or down stroke, or the only stroke), it is immaterial where it ends up being written. Top of page
Straight Strokes A doubled plain straight stroke looks identical to two of the same stroke in succession (see below), and so doubling is only used when there are other
attachments to help with the legibility of the outline. A final circle S can also be added to any of the outlines and is spoken last of all: (a) Initial Circle S:
spotter spotters sceptre spider speeder spreader splitter splutter
sector scatter squatter straighter strutter Note: seater sitter (b) Final hook:
ponder pander punter pointer printer sprinter splinter planter supplanter plunder
spender splendour banter binder bender brander blender blunter/blunder
taunter tinter/tinder drifter dander chanter chunter gender
canter/candour counter kinder crofter
gander grounder grunter grinder grafter squander
renter/render surrender rounder rafter winder wonder
winter wafter yonder hunter hounder Top of page
(c) Final joined diphthong:
powder/pouter prouder pewter computer touter tutor/Tudor doubter* chowder *Same thickness stroke the whole length – do not be tempted to do part thick and part thin, as in 'Ted' and 'debt'.
The plurals use a hooked stroke, as the diphthong is no longer joined:
powders pouters computers tutors Tudors doubters chowders
Note: commuter stout stouter (d) Preceding stroke(s):
adapter adopter captor helicopter repeater
inhibitor inhabiter cohabiter incubator participator liberator exhibitor
chapter Jupiter participator exploder institutor* astuter Note: astute *the first T is omitted in this outline = ins(t)itutor
contributor* distributor* imitator dictator agitator creditor bystander refrigerator *Because these have more than one stroke, they can remain doubled in the plural even though they no longer have an attached diphthong. Top of page
rector director recruiter tractor stricter instructor
propagator instigator allocator alligator electoral
ejector projector objector banqueter
nectar indicator protector protractor
extractor adjudicator absconder speculator
incinerator moderator twitter outwitter
embroider illustrator bequeather persuader dissuader
curator operator respirator macerator accelerator Top of page
Curved Strokes Curved strokes are doubled for all the sounds. Unlike straight strokes, no restriction is necessary because a double curved stroke does not resemble two of the same stroke in succession. No thickening is needed for the D sound, as that is represented as part of the doubling:
fatter father fetter/feather fitter feeder fighter after afternoon
flatter flitter fritter frankfurter softer sifter swifter
fender offender finder founder flounder Flanders
laughter lifter lavender shifter
voter aviator avoider invader inventor provider Note: provide
renovator excavator rotavator* elevator abbreviator *Exaggerate the joining angle slightly – the change of thickness helps to show the join.
theatre thunder thither aster Esther Easter oyster sister Note: eastern
asunder shutter shatter shooter peashooter sharpshooter* *After the two downstrokes, Ish written upwards for lineality
negotiator initiator matter mitre/mither meter/metre/meeter
motor mutter/mother smother smoother but Smithers* smithereens *Names need to be clearer, as context cannot help, so separate strokes are more helpful.
reminder remainder permitter transmitter* barometer *N omitted from 'trans' (see Theory 18 Prefixes/Trans page) Top of page
centimetre diameter pedometer, kilometre* thermometer *accent on first syllable (KIL-a-meeter); if accent on 2nd syllable (ki-LOM-mitter), there would be a first place dash after Ell and a light dot at end.
natter another netter/nether enter/ender neater/needer/neither
neither/nitre knitter neuter stentor
sander sender/centre/center/scenter senator cinder saunter Alexander
detonator alienator presenter dissenter
janitor originator progenitor preventer covenanter
northerly generator order ardour border boarder
barter charter harder hoarder sorter deserter disorder
porter supporter transporter reporter importer exporter
smarter starter warder Note: smart start ward reward rewarder 'inter-' always uses doubled En and takes the short i vowel:
interrupter interceptor international interval interview
interfere intermittent intermission interjection interest (contraction) 'intro-' only uses doubled En when convenient to join, and the doubled stroke takes no initial vowel:
introduce introduction (contraction), introjection intromission Top of page
Ell A plain Ell when alone is doubled only for -ter, and the form retained in derivatives:
latter latterly loiter loitering lighter lighterman
letter letterpress letterbox later
litre looter alter/altar litter litterbug
But ladder leader alder alderman elder elderly
But lather leather loather Lowther Top of page
If the Ell has attachments or preceding strokes, it can be doubled for all the sounds:
slotter slighter/slider slaughter slater slitter/slither slather
salter/psalter/solder swelter halter holder
welter/welder Walter wilder wilderness
lender slender slander cylinder calendar
isolator Icelander islander Highlander* Hollander *Full-length Hay, not tick H, because it is a derivative of 'high'
polluter boulder builder bewilder
falter defaulter folder filter
kilter quilter collator colluder legislator
accumulator simulator smoulder smelter annihilator
beholder householder shareholder stakeholder The doubled Ell is normally written upwards; it is only written downwards for ease of joining i.e. after N NS NG to maintain the direction of the curves, and after SK. As there is never a vowel after it, it never changes direction to indicate a following vowel, as the normal length Ell can sometimes do:
penholder ventilator newsletter insulator insulter moneylender
ringleader scolder helter-skelter, in this letter
Note: alternative alteration alternator
literal littoral lateral collateral poulterer Top of page
Ing Doubling Ing adds -ker -ger
The doubled stroke is exactly the same sound as the normal length hooked form, but is only used where the hooked form does not join easily or if it is the only stroke in the outline. There are thus two versions for the same sound:
anger/anchor anchorage inker sinker stinker shrinker
rancour/ranker winker longer linger hanker Use hooked form for better join; use hooked form where both would be convenient i.e. after Kay Gay:
pinker banker/Bangor bunker blinker tinker tanker
stronger drunker conker/conquer/conger finger thinker Top of page
ING-ER: to add just -er to Ing, use stroke Ar (there are far fewer of these, which is why doubling Ing adds -ker/-ger and not -er):
singer ringer/wringer banger hanger longer (one who longs) Doubling + suffix Any suffixes are spoken after the doubling sound:
ponders pondering meanders meanderings mutterings wanderings
Compare: punters punster
Top of page
Two straight strokes A doubled straight stroke is the same shape as two of the same stroke in succession. As the latter are less common, always vocalise them.
ponder pippin banter baboon bobbin
dander deaden condor cocoon
yonder yarn hunter heron render re-run
marauder mirror writer/rather (short form) rare Note: rarer error Note: writer/rather is an exceptional use of doubling. As it is a short form, it is never vocalised, and it sits on the line. Top of page
In Phrases Doubling can be used in phrases for 'there their other dear'. Generally all short forms consisting of a full stroke can be doubled to add these words. In
normal outlines, this use of the doubling principle should be more cautiously applied and is safest when restricted to the most common phrases:
we have been there, I think there is, I am sure there is, making their way
some other way, my dear sirs, in other words but any other, no* other *In phrases, always insert the vowel in 'no' and leave 'any' unvocalised
in order, in order that Note also the contracted phrase: in order to
Pairs: further farther, if their/there, for their/there
typewriter (the outline breaks the syllable unnaturally, but convenience is greater) therefore (this is a unique use of doubling) interrogator Top of page
When not to use No attachments: If a straight stroke has none of the required attachments, then a hooked stroke must be used for the sounds:
potter potters pottering padder batter bather bother tatter tether dither
chatter Cheddar jotter jitter judder cater cotter cuter
gutter gather quitter rotter reader water wetter hotter The presence of an initial hook on a straight stroke is insufficient on its own to allow doubling:
plotter pleader broader breather blather trotter trader
whetter quitter Crowther crater greeter grater (Note: great greater short forms) Some outlines/syllables that are not doubled can do so if they form the end of a longer word, i.e. they are preceded by other strokes, which helps with legibility:
Peter repeater butter rebutter bitter arbiter
biter backbiter cutter hedgecutter stonecutter
daughter granddaughter brother stepbrother
leather washleather cheater windcheater gather ingather
sunbather is clearer with separate strokes; no doubling for chatterbox because the doubled stroke would not be preceded by other strokes. The initial circle at the beginning of Hay does not count as an attachment as it is an integral part of the stroke:
hatter heater hooter header heather Top of page
Unvoiced -ther: never uses doubling:
anther panther Luther Arthur Merthyr* *One of the few outlines that does not have any writable vowel marks, as they are incorporated into the -ER syllable of the hooks
Unequal length with no clear join: Strokes of unequal length must have a clear angle of join, otherwise use hooked strokes or disjoin:
factor lector navigator monitor intermittent
interim larder shelter shoulder shielder Top of page
Accented syllable: Do not use when the syllable has an accented vowel – the full strokes are needed in order to have somewhere to write the vowel sign:
enter/ender entire inter endure aster austere matter mature
neither/nitre nitric commander commandeer colander volunteer
latterly laterally litter liturgy fritter fraternal
promoter premature natural internal inventor vendor
Top of page
natural central eccentric interpret tartaric
cylindrical (to match cylinder) cylindriform Top of page
Triphones: do not use when preceded by a triphone that has long last vowel – seeing the full separate strokes let you know that there are three vowels involved (this principle is also used in halving and with Shun Hook, for the same reason):
extenuator punctuator insinuator compare proprietor* appropriator* *vocalise both, due to similarity
If the third vowel is short as in 'proprietor' doubling can be used – as the last vowel of such a triphone is slurred or hardly sounded, there are in effect only two main vowels. Top of page
Final vowel: Do not use when a final vowel follows – full strokes are needed to provide somewhere to write the vowel, and in some cases lets you know the vowel is there, even if it is not being written in:
boundary pantry carpentry country secondary quandary
wintry inventory infantry watery entry sentry
pleasantry sundry pageantry gentry paltry poultry Protheroe
psaltery flattery directory feathery angry hungry Top of page
Past tenses: for -erd endings, mostly found in past tenses, use halving:
pondered plundered splintered tendered cantered slandered
spattered spluttered powdered tutored lettered littered faltered filtered
flattered frittered sweltered soldered smouldered bewildered
scattered shattered shuttered mattered motored metered
nattered neutered entered centred/centered sauntered engendered thundered
chartered ordered bordered disordered
rendered raftered wandered wondered wintered hindered foundered floundered*
*'floundered' is difficult to write neatly when vocalised with the diphthong, due to congestion of the marks, therefore keep the diphthong sign very small.
mothered smothered fathered feathered slithered
anchored/angered tankard tinkered drunkard conquered fingered hankered hungered Top of page
Suffix -ture: Generally not used for -ture:
culture lecture literature capture denture tincture
puncture miniature furniture (to match furnish) Top of page
picture structure infrastructure conjecture rupture debenture
nature signature nurture adventure venture
future feature material immaterial* armature *Stroke Em repeated for a negative, this will be covered in a future Prefixes/Suffixes page
Some pairs of -tor/-ture words need distinguishing:
captor capture raptor rapture creator creature
sculptor sculpture stricter stricture horticultor horticulture No R sound: If there is no R sound in the syllable, doubling is not appropriate. An R sound is always represented in Pitman's Shorthand, despite the fact that many variations of English do not pronounce it clearly or at all.
Hilda Kilda Florida Inga The sound of H can be represented in several ways, the choice being influenced by which makes the best join and therefore most legible outline:
 Upward Hay, used by the majority of outlines.  Downward Hay is used when alone and before simple Kay Gay.  Initial Downward Hay is shortened to a tick before Em Imp Ell Ar Rer    
Ard. Dot Hay – a dot written next to the following vowel, used when the other methods are not convenient or possible. In compound words and derivatives, the form that joins best is generally used. Only used to represent the sound. A silent longhand H is not represented in shorthand. As many examples as possible have been given, so that you can base new outlines on existing known ones.
Quick Reminders Upward Hay – Large Medial Circle Downward Hay Tick Hay – Tick versus full Downward Hay – Tick Hay in Phrases Dot Hay – Dot Hay in compound words Prefixes Short forms with H sound Derivatives Hay compared with similar circles and strokes When not to use QUICK REMINDERS – one of each usage:
UP: head hammer hacker heckle hurry hose
hen half hat hunt behave racehorse
DOWN: high highly hook hug ahem Bahamas
TICK: hem hump hear hearer hole, for whom
DOT: uphill loophole exhume Top of page
Upward Hay Upward Hay is the most used form – it is preferable as it is a forward moving stroke:
happy hop hype hope hip heap
hoop/whoop hypothesis hypothetical hypocrisy
hob hobby hautboy hub habit
hod head heading headmaster headstrong
headway ahead heed hood haddock hide/Hyde
hidden Howden Hudson Hattie haughty hotel* *pronunciation without the H sound is less common nowadays
hottest heighten hiatus hatch hedge hedgerow
huge hijack hitch hutch Hutchinson Hodges
Hannah honey honeymoon hunch hinge
hyena heinous Hendon Honduras Hindi
hang hanger hung hunger
hank honk huffy heavy havoc
hyphen haven Havana hath heath hawthorn*
*although 'haw' uses downward Hay, this derivative needs upward Hay to produce an angle at the join
hithe/hythe heathen hussy* hazy hash hush *2 pronunciations -ss- and -zz-
Hiawatha haywire Hawaii Hawaiian Top of page
Ray following:
Harry Harrow hurry hairy hero
harass Harris Harrison horizon horizontal
heron Huron heresy heretic
Harriet hardy* horrid hurried heredity * 'hearty' and 'hardy' are distinguishing outlines; hardy follows the rule, hearty does not.
hoarded herded compare hoard herd
heroic haricot hurricane Harrogate
horrify horrible herring hearth
Harold hurdle heroine harrier hairier Top of page
Hook following:
hoper hopper hypertension hibernate
Hibernian haberdashery Hebrew hubris
hotter hider header heater hooter
hydrogen hydraulic hydro-electric* hydration hatcher hedger * 'electric' is a contraction. Take care that 'hydraulic' and 'hydro-electric' are not read for each other.
hacker hawker hiker hugger haggard
heifer hover heaver hoover heather hither
hammer hummer humour* hamper hampered hankered hunkered/hungered *the pronunciation 'yumour' is less common nowadays
L Hook following:
haply hobble Hubble huddle hackle heckle
huckleberry haggle haggler hovel Halved:
hat hats hatbox hat-trick hot hotly hotspot hotbed
height hut hate hateful heat heating heatwave heatstroke Doubled:
hunter hinder (=further back) hinder (=obstruct) hounder hinterland Top of page
Final attachments:
hen hens/hence hewn hone Henry Henley
hint hints hindered* hindrance hound hundred hunt huntress *typo corrected 12Apr2014 to 'hindered' (this had been shown as 'hind')
half halved/haft hafts hive huff Hove
hoof hoof's/hooves haste host hast
hoist heist Hester hustings Hastings Haitian Circle S following:
hawse haze/hays hose/hoes huss hues/hews/Hughes hiss hisses
hissing house/Howe's housing housewife husband housebound
hasp hyssop hospice hospital Hispanic
hesitate hesitation hostel hostile hostility
history historical hysterical hazard hazardous
hawser husk hassock Hoskins
hyacinth haziness hustle hazel Top of page
Medially (see below for how to form the Hay circle going back on itself):
behalf behave behaved behaviour behoove beehive
behind behest behead boyhood babyhood
cubby-hole uphold behold withhold
foothold high-heeled upheaval haphazard biohazard
pea-hen abhor prohibit rehabilitation
Tahiti prehistoric antihistamine top-heavy
adhere adhesive dehydrate rehydrate rehang
overhang overhaul overhear overheard overhunt
unheeding unhesitating unhesitatingly* unhindered unholy *Outlines like this look unwritable with all the vowel signs inserted, but are easy to write unhesitatingly when unvocalised!
unhinge unhitch unhampered unhygienic
enhance enhearten unhurried downhearted
foolhardy Fieldhouse field-hospital playhouse brewhouse
outhouse gatehouse Woodhouse hothouse
clubhouse guest-house warehouse weigh-house
poorhouse* Whitehouse rehouse rehash rehearsal * 'poorhouse' and 'beerhouse' are distinguishing outlines; poorhouse follows the rule, beerhouse does not.
bloodhound wolfhound deadhead hot-head bareheaded
overhead overheat deadheat reheat preheat superheated Finally:
Idaho Jehu Yahoo Large Medial Circle A Circle S can be enlarged so that it includes a following Hay circle, but this large circle must be written so that the result still resembles upward Hay, i.e. mostly written going back on itself (see below for formation of this circle). Only a few words use this:
racehorse clothes-horse post-haste dust-heap doss-house
Fitzhugh Fitzherbert Fitzhenry Top of page
Downward Hay
Use when the H sound is the only consonant in the word:
high/hie haw/haugh* hay/hey Hoo Hoey Hoy Howe/how** *haugh = water-meadow
**'how' noun, meaning a low hill
hew/hue/Hugh ha ho/hoe aha oho ahoy Ohio Retain in derivatives where a syllable is added (see also Derivatives below for -s, -n and -ed):
hayloft haymaker haymow hayrick haystack
hewer hewing rough-hew rough-hewing hoer hoeing hieing heyday boohoo
higher highest highly highness high-class high-born
Highbury highflyer high-priest highroad highway
high-seas, hey presto, high-pressure*
*optional contraction
Use before simple Kay Gay:
hack hackney hike hake hook hoax
huckster Hawkins hexagon hexagonal Huxley
hector hick hiccup huckaback hectic hectare
hag haggis hug Haig/Hague Higgins Highgate Hugo Top of page
Medially and finally: use when upstroke not convenient – sometimes the choice is made because of the join with the following stroke, rather than the preceding stroke e.g. 'Abraham'. Note that the downward Hay can only take a final Circle S when it is attached to another stroke, because only then is it obvious it is a Hay and not some other stroke. The circle part of the Hay is written anticlockwise (diagram below):
cohabit mayhap mayhem Limehouse Abraham
behemoth anhydrous annihilate nihilism inhuman
all-hail All-Hallows billhook Lahore lahar
ad hoc* hulahoop lighthouse alehouse Brighouse farmhouse *this is the only instance of a Downward Hay following stroke D – 'hoc' is a separate word and this outline is really behaving like a mini-phrase.
wheelhouse summerhouse maharajah Sahara Mohican Mohawk
mahogany music-hall tomahawk mohair Leghorn
cowherd cohere cohesive incoherent Gehenna
Final: aloha tally-ho Mayhew Omaha mahout
cowhide cahoot cahoots anyhow know-how/no-how* sky-high *Always insert the vowel, to distinguish it from 'anyhow'
Shanghai shanghaied haw-haw heigh-ho Soho Sheehy Before Ray: Upward Hay is generally used before Ray, but a few words produce better outlines with downward Hay. The first four are taking advantage of halving the Ray, and the last two are avoiding 3 straight strokes in succession which would be illegible:
hortative heritage heritable horticulture heritor hierarchy Top of page
Tick Hay Downward Hay is reduced to a tick (i.e. just the lower third of the stroke):
 Before simple Em Imp, upward Ell, Ar Rer Ard – MNEMONIC: HoMeLieR
 Used only initially, never medially or finally.  The tick is treated as an initial attachment, like Circle S. It therefore does not count as the first stroke when placing the outline in position and is not used if a vowel precedes it.
Em: ham hammock hamster hamstring homage hominy
haulm home hem hemmed hymn humble Humphrey
hemisphere haemoglobin hemorrhage haematite homicide
Himalaya whom humid humidity humidify
humility humanity human* humane* humus/humous hummus** *these two are positioned according to the second vowel, in order to provide distinguishing outlines. **humus=soil, humous=pertaining to vegetable mould, hummus=chickpea spread
Emp: hemp hempen hempseed Hampshire Hampton humbug
Ell: hall/haul hollow holly hallow halo hello Hayley
hauled holiday hold/holed Hilda haulage Holocaust
Halifax health Helen helm helmet helium
help hole/whole holey/holy wholly wholesale wholesome holster
hull hulk hill hillock hillside hallelujah
halt halter holder hilt Hilton Hilary hilarious
heel/heal heliograph howl howler hailstone
Ar, Ard: here/hear heard hearer hearsay hereby hire hired hireling
hair/hare hairpin harebell harp harpoon herb* Herbert harbour *pronunciation without the H sound is less common nowadays
hurt heart/hart hearty* hard hardly harden hark hearken Harcourt * 'hearty' and 'hardy' are distinguishing outlines; hardy follows the rule, hearty does not.
Harvey harvest harvester hurl hurled harsh
harm harem harmony Herman harness
horse horseback horseman horse-power horseshoe hoarse
her hers/hearse Hurst horn Horner horror horror horary* Harare** * 'horary' avoids upward Hay+Ray+Ray which would make an unacceptable outline of 3 continuous strokes in the same direction. ** 'Harare' not in dictionary, could also be written like 'horary'. The form offered here, using two of stroke Ray, accords with the accented vowels that follow them – take your choice. Top of page
Tick versus full Downward Hay If the H sound has an initial vowel before, or triphone after, use the full stroke. This is the only time that the stroke Hay indicates the presence of a vowel or triphone. (This rule is the same as that for the use of Circle S versus stroke Ess, and Hook En versus stroke En):
hem ahem, hull ahull
hare O'Hare, horse ahorse
ham Higham/Hyam hiemation, howl Howell hyaline
heard Howard, hoot Hewitt Howitt Howitzer Tick Hay in phrases Tick Hay may occur medially in a phrase. Vocalisation should be considered, as in a phrase it is identical to Tick The. You cannot used both ticks together in a phrase:
for whom, in her compare in the air Note the exact placement of first place vowels in regard to the tick – the vowel sign is placed at the extreme end of the stroke, necessary so that the vowel sign is not mistaken for a second place vowel. This does not mean that the vowel is spoken before the H – if there were a vowel before the H, you would be using a full downward Hay stroke to place it against. Note also that the tick does not count as the first up or downstroke:
ham haulm hem homestead hemstitch
Top of page
Dot Hay Use Dot Hay when the other forms cannot conveniently be written. It is only used if the resultant outline remains legible when unvocalised.
 Mostly used in compound words, where the original form of Hay would make an awkward join.
 Never used initially or finally.  The dot is always placed close against the vowel that comes after the
 
H sound, and both signs are placed against the following stroke, regardless of whether the vowel is a first, second or third place one (as the H is medial, this is similar to the behaviour of vowels after a medial Circle S or medial hook). The sign for a vowel that is sounded immediately before the H sound also remains with its own stroke, whether first second or third place vowel, because it cannot 'jump' over the H, e.g. 'apprehend' below The dot is always written against a vowel sign. If you omit the vowel sign, then also omit the Dot Hay. Dot Hay on its own is meaningless, but a vowel sign on its own is preferable, when hard-pressed, if you feel the outline needs it for clarity.
Note the exact placement of the Dot Hay:
 Over a dot vowel, so they occupy the same position against the stroke,
 
i.e. a line drawn between them would resemble a dash vowel. The Dot Hay is the outer one of the two. The two dots are not side by side in relation to the stroke. Immediately before and beside a dash vowel, which will vary according to the direction of the stroke. To the left side of a diphthong.
Blackheath loophole pinhole manorhouse This can look similar to two vowel signs written together e.g. genii nuclei tracheae* but as Dot Hay is never used finally and is never placed immediately after a stroke, this does not present a problem.
*see outlines on Vowels page
apprehend apprehension reprehend philharmonic
unwholesome unhappy unhealthy unharness unheard unhurt
alcohol perhaps mishap vehicle* dehumanise** *choice of pronunciations **always insert the U diphthong, so it does not clash with 'demonise', although if you wanted a non-dictionary distinguishing outline, using downward Hay would make sense (as in 'ad hoc')
upholster grasshopper diehard firehose exhale exhume Top of page
Dot Hay in compound words Some outlines that use stroke Hay will change to Dot Hay when they are part of a compound word, either because stroke Hay is inconvenient or impossible to join, or to obtain a briefer outline. The list is not exhaustive:
hall – townhall guildhall Whitehall Vauxhall
handed – lefthanded right-handed high-handed open-handed short-handed
head – letterhead Godhead figurehead loggerhead Whitehead
bulkhead blockhead axehead hogshead pinhead drumhead
hearted – faint-hearted kind-hearted warm-hearted hard-hearted lighthearted
hill – uphill downhill foothill Redhill Cornhill
hog – hedgehog roadhog groundhog warthog
hold – household freehold stronghold
leasehold leaseholder shareholder penholder
hole – porthole air-hole armhole bolt-hole coal-hole
manhole pothole pigeonhole sinkhole
hood – neighbourhood knighthood falsehood likelihood livelihood
manhood womanhood adulthood childhood girlhood maidenhood
widowhood brotherhood* priesthood* *optional contractions
horse – hobbyhorse rocking-horse coach-horse
hook – fishhook boathook pruning-hook sheep-hook
horn – greenhorn longhorn Langhorne hartshorn
hound – greyhound foxhound staghound
hawk – sparrow-hawk goshawk night-hawk news-hawk
house – alms-house boarding-house boiler-house beerhouse* * 'poorhouse' and 'beerhouse' are distinguishing outlines; poorhouse follows the rule, beerhouse does not
clearing-house counting-house dwelling-house eating-house
glasshouse greenhouse henhouse penthouse townhouse
ice-house oast-house storehouse wash-house long-house meeting-house Top of page
Prefixes Initial in- , when not a negative, is shown by a small '-in' hook to upward Hay only.(This hook is only used for inh- instr- inskr-) The hook does not need vocalising, as the vowel is included in the meaning of the hook. The stroke Hay still goes through the line because the first sounded vowel is a third place one, despite it not being represented by a dot:
inhale inhaled inhalant inhabit inhibition
inherent inherit inheritance Negatives in- and un- use stroke N, which makes a much more reliable outline, considering that the meanings are opposites:
inhospitable inhuman inharmonious unhelpful
uninhabited* uninhabitable* disinherit as the 'in-' hook cannot be used medially. These two outlines have been corrected 14 April 2014
hetero- Most use halved downward Hay:
heterodox heterogeneous heteronym heterocarpous These three use upward Hay for better join before Gay Em Ell:
heterogamous heteromorphous heterology Top of page
Short forms with H sound:
had which have however him himself hand
has his when what who how why, for he can ( 'he' in phrases only) Top of page
Derivatives Some words that use downward Hay on its own, use upward Hay to accommodate attachments and to form single-syllable derivatives:
hoe hoes/hose hoed, hie hies/highs hied/hide
hew hews hewed hewn Derivatives need to keep their full stroke:
highly but holly, Highland but Holland
hoe hoer (one who hoes) but hoar, higher but hire Where the rules call for a downward Ell (see Theory 14 L Forms page), Tick Hay cannot be used:
hallucination halcyon compare haloes Top of page
Hay compared with similar circles and strokes Writing the Circle Stroke Hay must never be allowed to resemble S-CH or S-Ray, so medially and finally it is sometimes necessary to write the circle going back upon itself. The use of such an abrupt change of direction is always kept to an absolute minimum in the rules of Pitman's Shorthand. Whichever method is used to write the Hay, the final shape is always the same, i.e. the circle never changes sides:
Compare the following:
Bohemia beseech, adhere deserve, unheated inserted
Omaha mischief, coffee-house officer Similarity to other strokes:
hay rays/race, series ways yes, hat hit chats chits, hunt child's Confusion as to which stroke is meant is only likely when there is only one stroke in the outline. An additional stroke in the outline makes it clear which direction the strokes were written:
 'hay' and 'rays/race' could be confused, so keep the angle of Ray  
shallow. 'series' 'ways' and 'yes' show why a solitary downward Hay does not take final hooks or circle. the writing direction of the half length strokes becomes clear when the vowels are inserted, but if vowels are omitted, then only the steep or shallow angle shows which stroke is meant.
See also note on Theory 10 Halving 'extra care straight strokes' Top of page
When not to use Silent longhand H is not represented in Pitman's Shorthand:
heir heiress heirloom honest honestly hombre hacienda
haute cuisine, honour honourable dishonour ohm Brahms
vehemence exhibit exhort exhilarate exhaust
forehead rhetoric rhyme rhubarb threshold* *this word is sometimes pronounced with a separate additional H sound, a possibly false etymology from 'hold', but the dictionary outline reflects the normal pronunciation
Hannah Hugh high bah WH: the H sound is included in the Whay and Whel strokes, therefore does not need to be indicated separately.
where while The sound of W is represented in two main ways. The outline uses whichever method produces the easiest outline to write and read, and in some cases to indicate the presence of a preceding vowel:
 Stroke Way  Small semicircle: (a) Initially, right semicircle, attached before simple Kay Gay, Em Imp/Imb Ar Ard Rer Ray
  
(b) Medially, left or right semicircle, unattached and written to replace the sign of the vowel that immediately follows it. Also part of strokes Hway Wel Hwel Kway Gway Also part of Circle Sway, dealt with on page Theory 4 Circles/Sway Although the W sound is a long vowel, it does the job of a consonant when it begins a syllable.
Stroke Way Initial semicircle
Medial semicircle Strokes Hway Wel Hwel Strokes Kway Gway Initial Vowel Derivatives Phrases & compound words Distinguishing outlines for place names Short form why When not to use a W form Stroke Way This is the form most commonly used. As stroke Way has an initial hook as part of its basic form, it can take no other initial hooks or initial loops:
way we* wee weep wiper web wobble weighbridge
wide wed wooden wattle waddle watch wedge
withy woozy wash Winnie wing wife waft
wafter waffle weave woven wave waved wavy
*Short form
waver/waiver weevil ways/weighs waste/waist western Wooster/Worcester* Worcestershire* *Worcester, worsted (woollen cloth) and the endings -ward, -wart, -wort are the only outlines that do not show the longhand R (see Theory 10 Halving/ward). In the first two, the letter R is not sounded at all, the vowel is the same as that in 'wool'.
worsted = woollen cloth (named after the district of Worstead in Norfolk, UK) worsted = past tense of verb 'to worst' to defeat/get the better of, i.e. 'give someone the worst of it'
wine won/one ones/once went/wend wind winner winter winder
wit witty water bewail beware between
otherwise unwise highway railway halfway subway
twice twist twister twisted twin twine Twi
Taiwan twit tweet tweeted twitter twittered tweed
twirl twitch twill twilight twang twinge dwell
dwarf dwarfed Dwight Duane/Dwayne thwack thwaite Hawaii Stroke Way can take an initial circle as part of a compound word or in those cases where Circle Sway cannot be used (see page Theory 4 Circles/Sway):
crosswise causeway waxwing sway persuade dissuade Top of page
Initial semicircle
Sometimes called 'abbreviated W'. Before simple Kay Gay Em Imp/Imb Ar Ard Rer Ray, the W is represented by a small attached semicircle:
 Used because it joins better than stroke Way, and is quicker to write.  It is a right semicircle = clockwise.  Changes its angle slightly when attached to Em Imp/Imb Ray i.e. the  
first part of the semicircle is always parallel to the beginning part of the stroke. Not used if the word begins with a vowel. Never omitted unless it is replaced by the medial semicircle in a compound word or phrase.
The order of reading is like a Circle S: read the W first, then the vowel, then the stroke:
oak woke soak, oxen waxen Saxon General Examples:
walk walking wok week/weak weaken weakened weekend
weakness weakly/weekly wick wicket wicked Wickham Wycombe
wax waxy wag wagged waggon Wiggins wagtail
wigwam* womb woman* women* womanly wimple *Have to use stroke Way with Em here
**More on these two below
Wimbledon Wembley Weymouth Wemyss Woomera wombat
were wear wearer wears/wares war warn wore worn
worse worst worsen work worm warm Warmington
ward/warred warder weird Wordsworth wire wired wart warty
wort wiry wary weary worry worried worrier
warp warble worship Warsaw world worldwide
worth warden warren warrant warranty Note that when the semicircle is attached to Ar, it looks as if it is on the second side of the stroke, but it is still an initial attachment and is therefore spoken first. A vowel on that side counts as coming after the Ar:
wear era arrow Final '-ward' '-wort' '-wart' are often represented by halved Way in compound words. As the R is thus omitted, this part of the outline counts as a mini-contraction, and is therefore not vocalised (see Theory 10 Halving/ward for more examples):
moonwort thwart Hayward upwards outward reward
Note: thwarted Haywood rewarded The initial semicircle is never omitted, but in the middle of a phrase or compound word it may be replaced by the medial semicircle which itself can
be omitted be omitted in fast writing (further on this in Phrases & Compound Words below):
work framework well Harwell Note: Harrell The initial semicircle may be followed by a diphthong, but use stroke Way if followed by a diphone or triphone, the point being that the latter have separately sounded vowels, forming an extra syllable, and having the full stroke Way helps to indicate this:
Wyman but Wyoming weigher wooer compare wear/ware wore Initial semicircle is only used with simple strokes, so use stroke Way if the next stroke is hooked:
wicker* wiggle waggle
*see also note in Derivatives below
Top of page
Medial semicircle When stroke Way in the middle of an outline would be impractical, impossible, or the outline would be too lengthy, a small unattached semicircle is used instead. It represents the W sound plus the following vowel sound, and replaces that vowel sign – it is written in the same place against the stroke as the vowel sign would occupy.
 Never changes its angle.
 Always thin, regardless of whether it replaces a thin or thick vowel  
sign. Never used initially or finally in an outline. May be omitted in fast writing in the same way as vowel signs are, as long as the outline remains readable and not ambiguous. If in doubt, it is safer to write it in.
W + dot vowel following = left semicircle (anti-clockwise). This is the same direction as the short forms 'with' 'when' which are both dot vowels. W + dash vowel following = right semicircle (clockwise). This is the same direction as the short forms 'what' 'would' which are both dash vowels. Mnemonic: you begin writing this one in the same direction as you write a horizontal dash vowel i.e. left to right. The medial semicircle is occasionally called the 'W diphthong' in some older books, reflecting the fact that it is made up of only vowels, even though sometimes it does the job of a consonant when it begins a syllable. As it requires some thought to decide when it is safe to use the medial semicircle instead of stroke Way, it is best to practice as many examples as possible, so that no hesitation occurs during dictation, hence the lengthy (but not exhaustive) list below. The resultant outline must be unambiguous even when the semicircle is not written in. For the compound words, I have given the root word in the 'compare' line. Top of page
Dot Left semicircle Vowe l THAT
earwax beeswax sealing-wax compare wax
twenty twentieth twelve twelfth farewell Oswestry
subsequent* frequent* Buenos Aires, Cromwell Bothwell compare well west *Further on these in the Kway section
twig twixt twiddle dwindle goodwill hoodwink
forthwith wherewith therewith herewith bewilder bewildered
earwig periwig bigwig Pickwick Chadwick Hardwick
sandwich Ipswich Northwich well-wisher* ill-wisher* *Care needed with similar outlines
anguish* languish* extinguisher* distinguisher* extinguish/ed** distinguish/ed** *Outlines omit the hard G sound **Contractions
compare: withy will wilder wink wick wig witch wisher
Note: Norwich (pronounced 'norrij') betwixt PA
memoir reservoir boudoir abattoir
mademoiselle chamois* bulwark *pronounced sham-wah = mountain antelope; also pronounced (and sometimes written) 'shammy' = suede polishing cloth.
assuage hardware Venezuela WE
seaweed tweak tweezers Tuileries Oswego compare weed Top of page
Dash Right semicircle Vowe l NOT
twattle twaddle 'twas somewhat* *Note the Dot Hay against the W sign
wishy-washy churchwarden Cornwall Cornwallis
compare: wash warden wall Wallis/Wallace MUC H
framework fireworks guesswork woodwork
stonework waterworks overwork bookworm
glow-worm ringworm wireworm woodworm
canker-worm Wandsworth Butterworth airworthy* seaworthy* *Care needed with similar outlines
blameworthy someone compare work worth worthy worm GOO D
lambs-wool driftwood wormwood Eastwood compare wool wood ALL
rainwater backwater breakwater highwater seawater
soda-water rose-water seaward eastward ropewalk
sleepwalker shopwalker caterwaul compare water walker ward GO
misquote misquotation compare quote quotation Further on these in the Kway section TOO
thrice-wooed* compare wooed *the only example Top of page
In compound words the semicircle stays with its own word, which means that a first or second place vowel may end up moving forward to the next stroke. This allows the outline to reflect the words that the compound word is made from, making the outline more legible:
memoir homework i.e. me-mwar but home-work not ho-mwork Several of the TW outlines using the medial semicircle need distinguishing from similar outlines and so it would be safer to always insert the semicircle in those:
tweak tick, tweezers teasers, twenty tenth, twattle tattle Top of page
Strokes Hway Wel Hwel The longhand convention of writing the letters 'Wh' for the sound of HW should be ignored when forming shorthand outlines. Shorthand instruction books describe the strokes Hway and Hwel as representing 'WH' and 'WHL' which is referring to longhand and not to the sounds. It is better to associate the strokes with the sounds they represent, and treat the longhand spelling as a separate matter entirely. Even though many people do not pronounce the H, you should still learn the different forms because of their usefulness in providing distinguishing outlines and because the longhand still needs to be spelled correctly regardless of popular pronunciation. Outlines should be consistent and not change to reflect people's differing pronunciation. Stroke Hway This is stroke Way with an enlarged hook to represent the sound of 'HW'. It is a compound consonant = no vowel may come between the H and W sounds. This is not an additional hook to give an additional sound. It is therefore best to learn the stroke as a whole without mentally taking it apart into its constituent sounds.
whey whoa whip whippet whopper whoopee
white whit Whitsun wheat whet whetted whetstone
whack Whig whiff whine whin whinny whinge
whim whimsical whimper where anywhere
nowhere elsewhere whereas wharf whirr
whirl whirled whirling whirlwind whirlpool
whorl whortleberry wherry wheedle whither whether* *Short form
whizz whizzed/whist wheeze wheezed whisk whisker whistle Top of page
Strokes Wel Hwel These are basically the upward Ell stroke with an initial hook. The hook, representing the W or HW sound, is read first:
  
Small hook = W-L Large hook = HW-L This is similar to stroke Way having its hook enlarged to include the H sound. There is always a vowel between the W/HW and the L sounds – it would be unpronounceable without a vowel. These two strokes are therefore not compound consonants. Never written downwards.
These two hooks add their sound to the Ell in the same way that Circle S adds its consonant before a stroke i.e. the W or HW is spoken first, then the vowel, then the L sound:
ail/ale wail whale sale, oldest wold sold
aisle/isle wile while silo, wilt silt, alter Walter salter/psalter
Liam William solemn, ledge Woolwich* silage General examples:
well unwell welfare Wellington will willing
*pronounced 'woolij'
unwilling willow Williamson wolf Welsh wall sea-wall
wealth commonwealth welcome welcoming* welcomed welcomer *Using proximity to indicate 'com' (see Theory 18 Prefixes/Con-com page)
wail weal wool woollen Wollaston Wolsey Wolseley Weller
wilt wilted Wiltshire welt welter wild wilder
Walter welled/weld wailed willed wield unwieldy
wheel wheeled wheeling Wheeler spinning-wheel millwheel narwhal
whale whalebone whelp whelk whelm while whiling
whiled whilst meanwhile worthwhile worthwhile* *Alternative contraction Wel and Hwel cannot clash with a downward Ell plus N hook or Shun hook because the latter are never written alone – they follow a stroke and so the direction they were written in is always clear:
Upwards: well while, lane lotion Downwards: aniline insulation
Note: swell swelled swelling Circle Sway described in full on page Theory 4 Circles/Sway) Top of page
Strokes Kway Gway These strokes include the W sound and are best learned as a whole stroke to represent the compound consonant. A first place vowel goes outside the hook, same as for normal size hooks:
equip quote quota equity aquatic quiet disquiet
quid liquid liquidate liquefy quash quotient
query quarry quartz quartet quarantine quandary
choir/quire acquire aquarium enquire require requisition
quarrel quarter quantity quantify queen quantum
quaff equation equate adequate equator quitter equatorial
quest question request requested bequest bequeath
antiquated inquisitive qualm equilibrium quibble quench quell
equestrian eloquent loquacious soliloquy colloquial
ventriloquist delinquent delinquent* *Alternative contraction
squeak squawk* squat squatter* squander *These two outlines are identical if unvocalised - see Theory 11 Doubling/Two Straight Strokes for further on this.
squeeze sequence consequently squabble squad squid squadron
squeegee squirt squash squeamish squalid squall sequel
square squared squired squirrel squirm
guano iguana iguanodon guava guacamole
linguist linguistic languid languorous
penguin* sanguine Gwen Gwent Gwyneth *Dictionary gives 'penguin' with stroke En rather than Ing, possibly assuming that pronunciation reflected the derivation pen+gwyn (Welsh: head white, originally referring to the Great Auk), in contrast to sang+uine (Latin: sanguineus=blood-like).
Gwendoline Guinevere Guam Maguire
Paraguay Uruguay Guatemala Guadeloupe Guelph
queer* compare clear choir/quire
*Distinguishing outline, as this and 'clear' are
both adjectives
There are a few words that make better outlines by using the medial semicircle for the KW sound, and with most of them it is seldom necessary to write in the semicircle:
quality qualify qualification disqualify tranquil
frequent frequently frequency frequenter infrequent
subsequent asquint* Asquith* misquotation misquote* mistake* *Advisable to insert the semicircle for unusual words, and in 'misquote' so it does not look like 'mistake'
Note: quite* equal* equalise equality (both using short form) equality (not using) *short forms
Do not use Kway or Gway if there is a vowel between the K/G and the W sounds:
Gawain Cawood co-worker
Exception: lukewarm
Top of page
Initial vowel If a vowel comes before the W or HW sounds, then strokes Way or Hway must be used, as you cannot write a vowel to a hook: If the word starts with a vowel, then stroke Way must be used, because you cannot write a vowel to the semicircle. Seeing stroke Way where you might expect to see the initial semicircle lets you know that there may be a vowel before it, thus improving legibility when vowels signs are omitted: omitted:
wake awake, woke awoke, wear aware
wool awol ward/warred* award* worried
*Dictionary has 'ward' = thick dash and 'award ' = thin dash, so I have adhered to that here, although the Anniversary Edition textbook (p88) has thick dash for both, which accords with their identical pronunciation.
while awhile, wheel awheel Derivatives Derivatives (word+ending) and compound words (word+word) endeavour to retain the original form of the outline(s), although this is not always done if it would result in an awkward outline. The aim is to keep related words looking similar, and have distinctive outlines for words that may have the same consonant structure but a different spread of vowels or different derivation. This is not a top priority rule, but a useful one that increases the legibility of unvocalised shorthand and applies right across Pitman's Shorthand, not just the W forms:
way-lay way-laid but woolly wailed
walk walker/Walker wag wagger
wick wig wigger* but wicker Wicker Wigger which have different derivations** *verb 'wig' means to scold
**(1) made of flexible twig/willow (related to 'weak') (2) surname 'inhabitant of Wick' (3) Variant of Wicker
Pondering word derivations and outline choices is out of the question during dictation, but as long as your outline reflects the sounds spoken, you will be able to transcribe correctly. Top of page
Phrases and compound words Whichever form of W is used in the basic outline, this may change to one of the other methods when the word becomes part of a phrase or compound word. The main consideration is the ease of the join, producing a speedy and reliable outline, but the resultant outline must be easy to read back, even when vowels and unattached signs are omitted. It is seldom necessary to insert any of the unattached semicircles when writing phrases, but they are shown in some of the examples, so that you know where the signs belong. Stroke Way replaced by medial semicircle.
water highwater weed seaweed Initial Semicircle replaced by stroke, or medical semicircle:
worthy unworthy praiseworthy trustworthy roadworthy
walk cakewalk cat-walk, wire haywire
world, another world, week, last week, well, very well Wel and Hwel may not join easily:
Full strokes: cog-wheel fly-wheel cartwheel waterwheel erstwhile
Dot Hay plus medial semicircle: freewheel horsewhip overwhelm In a few instances the initial semicircle is retained in a compound word or phrase:
sidewalk jaywalker needlewoman needlewomen, men and women
bondwoman horsewoman charwoman washerwoman compare fisherman
man woman* men women, similarly human* humane * These two count as distinguishing outlines
salesman salesmen saleswoman saleswomen Note that 'woman' 'women' take their position from the 2nd vowel, so that their difference is maintained when the outlines are not vocalised. They also need to have a semicircle at all times, whether attached or unattached, because in phrases or compound words they could be read as 'man' 'men'. The phrase 'men and women' is common enough to remain unvocalised, but in other phrases vowels may be necessary to show whether these words are singular or plural. The verb 'will' in phrases is represented by a plain upward Ell and the semicircle is not necessary – it is always very clear what is meant and to insert it would defeat the purpose of the phrase, which is to gain speed. When 'will' is used as a noun, it can take the semicircle, if felt necessary:
will, I will, he will, that you will be, if he will have but goodwill freewill 'Were' in phrases takes whatever form is easiest to write. Again, the meaning is always clear because the word groupings involved are so common, and medial semicircle or vowel signs need not be written:
were, you were, they were
'Well' in phrases does take a medial semicircle, but is easily omitted without losing clarity:
well, very well, so well Rather than hesitate over semicircles during a dictation, you should use full strokes or write the two halves of the outline separately and then find out the correct outline later. Even in longhand there is often a question over whether to write something as two words, a hyphenated word or one word. Writing a longer outline or two outlines is far preferable to hesitating and losing the next few words. Making an awkward join, when separate outlines would be more readable and reliable, is also a hindrance. However, joining or not joining can indicate different uses of the same two words, shown up by where the emphasis falls in the sentence (underlined). In the second of each of the sentences below, joining the outlines would be inappropriate and make the shorthand awkward to read back:
I saw the cat-walk. I saw the cat walk.
This person is trustworthy. We can trust Worthy to do the job.
We arrived last week. His last weak excuse was not accepted. Top of page
Distinguishing outlines for place names
Wells Wales* Walworth Woolworth* *the second of each pair breaking the rule
Always vocalise these two: Cornhill Cornwall Names and place names are best vocalised whenever possible, as context cannot help. Short Form Why This sign is unlike any other. Prior to the Centenary version of Pitman's Shorthand in 1913, this was the sign for the W (or HW) plus the 'eye' sound, as in 'wife' 'Wight' 'white', and also the short form 'why' that we still use. It behaved like the W semicircle – sometimes joined initially to certain strokes, sometimes unattached medially. Note that 'why' is a right angle (90°), unlike the other three angular diphthongs (60°):
why I toy cow When not to use the W forms SW at the beginning of a word uses the Circle Sway, see Theory 4 Circles page. Longhand often uses the letter W to indicate a long vowel. In those cases it does not come under any of the above headings, and the appropriate vowel sign is used:
awe awl awesome awful awkward dawn mow owl
power sewage Bewick/Buick Newark Rwanda Cwmbran A redundant longhand letter is never represented in Pitman's Shorthand:
wrought write/Wright/rite wry/rye awry wrass wrestle wrist
wren wreath wrap/rap wreak/reek wretch/retch
wriggle wrong wrinkle whole whoop Upwards Ell Upwards when it is the only stroke in the outline, regardless of length (halved, full or doubled) or attachments:
ale ales ill eel Ely allow
else sale seal sill silt salt slot soil silo
stall stale still stool stilt swell swill
hall hallo hill heal hilt halt halter
lie low lea/Lee loss losses lost last less lose/loose
list Lister oleaster line lines lawn lane lone lion
lot lots let late elate lute/loot lit slit slat light lights slight
lend/lent lint silent Solent lends lender lenders slender slander
launder lotion elation elision lesion illusion Silesian Alsatian Top of page
Upwards with most strokes, other than in the combinations described in the next sections:
Alp alpine lapse elapse leap lupin
Paul pale ball bill lab label elbow
tall tally tile tale towel latte lattice lettuce
lad led dale dull idle idol ideal
like lake lick slick silk sulk elastic
kale keel coal cool log leg
gallon gale gull goal guile
latch leech/leach Ilchester chill chilly itchily sketchily patchily
ledge ledger sledge sludge allege lodge village
jolly jelly gel Jill/Gill Jillian/Gillian Julian
jail jowl agile lull lily lowly Lola Leila Top of page
laugh left self life leaf elephant Olaf
love live leave alive lath loth althaea
Athol Othello thrill thrall throstle
health stealth tilth filth lathe loathe withal
lasso lassie lossy lazy laser loser
lash lush leash mile male mole mill meal
mule/mewl impel puzzle appraisal reprisal basil bristle
tussle teazel/teasel trestle docile dazzle drizzle castle Cassell
crossly crassly gristle/grizzle grizzly guzzle
chisel chastely jostle justly rustle/Russell wrestle whistle
chrysalis Chrysler useless hazel hustle
sprucely sparsely cautiously Cecil sessile isosceles
frizzle frazzle versal reversal mizzle measles
muscle/muzzle embezzle mostly muslin mucilage impiously
loosely wholesale callously keenly cleanly
kindly grandly secondly subsequently frequently blandly friendly Top of page
rational national optional occasional professional
pelt bolt tilt adult dolt searchlight torchlight jilt jolt
kilt colt exalt* exult** guilt/gilt fault felt asphalt joyous
volt revolt vault lilt assault oscillate zealot shallot
malt moult melt tumult result somersault quilt
*elevate, raise **be
polder bolder/boulder/boulter belter assaulter
Calder kilter quilter gilder/guilder guelder
folder defaulter violator revolter smelter smoulder Top of page
Reasons to use downward Ell, in order of priority:
1. To continue the direction of curve of the preceding or next stroke, or its hook or circle, i.e. keeping them all clockwise, or all anti-clockwise, called 'similar motion'. 2. Make a legible join with the next stroke in the outline. This may necessitate ignoring the rule of similar motion. 3. With certain strokes, to differentiate between words that have an initial or final vowel and those that do not. Vowel indication only occurs in cases where both directions of Ell are equally convenient. Some of the words naturally fall into pairs e.g. full, fully. An initial downwards Ell cannot take an initial circle or loop. Note the placing of the vowel signs against the Ell: first place vowels are written at the beginning of the stroke, which with downwards Ell is at the top. In such cases it is behaving similarly to stroke Chay. 1. Continue curve An initial or final Ell is written downwards in order to continue the motion of the preceding curved stroke, or straight stroke with hook or circle: (a) After En and Ing
Nile nail null anull knoll nil kneel/Neal/Neil anneal
Noel/Nowell canal denial annual annually only unless annulus
unlace unlaced enlist presently sandal sand-eel soundly swindle
meanly manly manual Nielsen sanely senile
Stanley Stoneleigh stonily stainless tuneless somnolent consonantal
newly nightly/knightly inlet unlet insult insulate
vanilla Fenella plainly Townley suddenly certainly
wrongly strongly kingly Headingly exceedingly jokingly
seemingly surprisingly* accordingly Note: accord/according* *short forms
adoringly sparingly amazingly* amusingly* *always insert 2nd vowel in amaze/amuse -s -d -ing -ingly -ment
antlike auntlike saintlike womanlike sportsmanlike kinglike
springlike ringlike analog analyse analyst nylon aniline
clothesline mainland inland downland England * Englander inlander *contraction
natural naturally insulator insulter ventilator vacillator
candlestick inelastic inlay inlaying in-law* father-in-law *uses short form in, hence first position
'underl-' words are disjoined, therefore the Ell can remain upward – as these words are mostly derivatives, this allows the original word to remain unchanged, whilst avoiding the undesirable join between the En stroke and upwards Ell. It also has he added advantage that the outlines are less likely to be confused with all the 'in-' and 'un-' words:
underlay underlaid underline underling underlying Note also: inlying* *uses short form in, hence first position Top of page
(b) N-S-L
nasal nozzle nuzzle noiseless noiselessly senseless businesslike
unseal groundsel Onslow Kingsley densely
tensile tonsil council counsel cancel consul
nicely pencil stencil utensil chancel sensual
immensely Barnsley benzol benzolene insolent Although Chay is not written after downwards Ell, Jay is allowed. This does not produce an ideal join to the Ell (shallow angle, and both strokes going backwards) but does allow similar motion between the En and Ell. Presumably the thickness of Jay helps readability despite the poor join (compare with 'unlatch' below). Such a join is avoided where possible by using Hook L, mainly the '-ology' words:
analogy mineralogy ensilage Note: silage criminology Top of page
(c) L-S-N and L-S-Ing
license licentious lesson/lessen listen lozenge
loosen looseness loosing/losing leasing Alison Lawson Lessing
Elsinore Elysian, Los Angeles, Los Alamos
adolescence convalescence opalescence coalescence
Halesowen halcyon hallucination
Top of page
(d) More instances of maintaining similar motion
elusive elusively illusive lascivious lucific
fossil facile fussily fizzle faceless voiceless nervously
fusil fusel-oil vassal vessel vaseline vacillation vastly
mischievously conversely aversely adversely Eversley everlasting
thistle Methuselah Thessalonians thusly, this letter *, this will* but they will *Because of the circle S, downward Ell is the only way to make a join. Ell used in phrases for 'will' is normally upwards.
Special outlines London Londoner Londonderry but generally thus: Landon Linton After small Shun Hook, follow the motion – most of them have downward Ell:
sensational positional conversational transitional compensational Top of page
(e) These not only continue the motion, but also produce compact outlines with clear sharp joins
film fulminate volume voluminous vellum Velma realm
column columnar calumny Coleman calamity
coulomb calamine columbine Colombo Columbus
skulk skullcap but skulker onlooker to join the Ker
helterskelter compare skelter scolder scalder – one might expect upwards Ell in the second part of 'helterskelter' in order to retain the direction of the circle, but compactness is more important here.
For compactness: unwarlike mirrorlike lawyerlike
Compare warlike warily rarely relic Top of page
2. Clear join with preceding or next stroke Downwards Ell does not always make a good join with the following stroke, or may produce an outline with too much backward movement, so in some cases the rule of similar motion cannot be used. With some of the words beginning '-un' this has the incidental advantage of retaining the outlines they are derived from:
inlaid unlaid unled unload unladen unladylike
unlatch unlearn unlovable unleavened unleash
unlettered unlighted unlikelihood unlaboured unlabelled
unsullied insulted unsling enslave unsaleable
facile but facility fuselage fossilology footslog
Note distinguishing outlines: unsold unsoiled (unsold has the shorter outline as it is the most frequent word; outlines with diphthongs very often keep the strokes in full) Hook L is used in a few instances (even though vowels may intervene) where it produces a brief and distinctive outline that cannot clash with anything else (more such outlines on Theory 7 Hooks R L page):
analytic enliven molecule Top of page
3. Vowel indication
For initial and final Ell, and only with certain strokes, different in each case. Vowel indication never occurs medially – medial Ell is chosen only for convenience and to a lesser degree to show derivatives. (a) Initially Before simple horizontal stroke - Kay Gay Em Emp En Ing - the downward Ell (full or halved) is used to indicate an initial vowel:
elk alike alcove Alec Alexander compare like Luke
Alcock Ilkeston elixir compare Laycock Laxton Luxor
allocate election elocution alkaline compare locate location
electricity* electron electrician alchemy compare laxity leukaemia *contraction
alligator allegation elegant elegance compare legate legation legacy
elegaic Olga Elgin compare league Logan
element elementary eliminate illuminate compare lament Lomond lemonade
elm aluminium aluminum alimony compare lame lemony
Elmleigh Elmsley Ilminster compare Lumley Leominster* *pronounced 'lemster' Top of page
Alhambra Olympia Olympus Olympic compare lumpy lambast lampoon
Allenson ulna Olney Illinois Iolanthe compare luna Lana
Ealing Illingworth along oolong elongate compare long Langworth
Allingham Allington compare Langham Langton
ultimate ultimatum allotment altimeter Eltham compare Feltham
alone* align* alien* Alan* Elaine* Ellen* Elena
Compare: lone lonely lanoline line Len Lennie Lena In those marked above* stroke En is used despite no following vowel, to make it obvious the Ell is written downwards. Downward Ell standing alone never takes a hook, as this would look like stroke Wel. When the Ell is attached to another stroke, it becomes obvious that it is an Ell written downwards and is not a Wel/Whel written upwards:
lone well, lotion whale, nylon* welling
*more examples above
The rule for vowel indication does not apply if there is a circle or hook coming between the Ell and the next stroke, as downward Ell there would not make a good join:
Alaska Lasky Elswick Liskeard* algorithm logarithm
*pronounced 'liss-kard'
logger Elgar liner ulnar Eleanor/Ellenor lissom alyssum
Exceptions: alienor Pilsener Top of page
(b) Finally After normal-length Eff Vee S-Kay Kway Ray Way Yay and upward Hay:
 Downward Ell = no final vowel  Upward Ell = final vowel
full file fail awful compare fully folly failure awfully
successful graceful false falsity compare successfully gracefully felicity
Val vale vole vowel compare volley villa viola Evelyn
level Lovell revulsion compare lovely Clovelly revolution
scale skull skill scowl scholastic compare scaly Scully Note that the SK above has no vowel between. If there is a vowel between, then the outlines are formed under the basic rules, with no need for a downward Ell:
sickle cyclist sickly sackless sicklist
quell quail quill quilling colloquial compare Aquila quelea
squall sequel Gwillim compare squally sequela Gwalia
dwell yell Howell compare waylay yellow Yolande unholy
royal roll/role real compare royally Rollo really relay
rill rule spiral compare gorilla Rula spirally
plural mural viral compare pluralist muralist virally
coral choral compare coralline choralist
enrol snarl compare snarly Note: gnarl
compulsorily satisfactorily* but 2 exceptions: sincerely necessarily where the Ell matches the direction of the circle. *Contraction Top of page
rascal fiscal compare rascally fiscally Note: physical physically
Distinguishing outlines alcohol alcoholic alkali alkaline To remember these, pair them with other outlines: full/alcohol fully/alkali
fall falling follow following avail available value valuing
carol carolling fuel fuelling flail flailing Varying the Ell form for vowel indication does not apply to SKR and SK-R. Normal upwards Ell is used, which also achieves similar motion:
scrawl scrawly scroll scrolly secretly The rule for final vowel indication is stretched to include these:
actual actually structural structurally
artistical artistically fantastical fantastically
statistical statistically logistical logistically egotistical egotistically These follow similar motion, but do not vary for final vowel indication:
intellectual intellectually conjectural conjecturally electoral Note: electorial When a suffix is adding another L sound to a word that already ends in L, the outline repeats the Ell, to reflect the lengthened pronunciation. This seems to happen when there is a long vowel preceding:
foully* vilely* servilely* scaleless* skill-less* soulless *The second Ell here goes upwards to prevent 3 full downstrokes, and at slightly shallower angle in order to be writable
styleless tailless guileless futilely hostilely
wholly solely dully coolly compare holy/holey dolly coolie With a short vowel, the pronunciation of the L sounds is generally unchanged, so no extra Ell is needed:
additional additionally conditional conditionally provisional provisionally Words like the following are adding the -y sound to form an adjective, and the longhand LL is merely a convention of spelling to show that a short spoken vowel precedes. Only an extra final dot is needed:
weasel weaselly tinsel tinselly
It is always helpful to insert the final vowel sign if the outline itself does not show whether there is a final vowel or not. A small number of words with halved strokes take a downward Ell to achieve similar motion with the preceding curve, hook or circle. Such words generally do not come in pairs like 'full fully' and so similar motion is the only issue:
completely boldly bloodless softly swiftly exactly adequately worldly
Compare proudly broadly sprightly strictly contritely where the normal upward Ell achieves similar motion as a matter of course. Note also short form coldly.
deservedly unreservedly vividly fervidly pectoral
fatal fatally fitly foothill thoughtless thoughtlessly effortless effortlessly comfortless
Distinguishing outlines fatal futile, thoughtless thankless* *Uses short form Top of page
Although Ell halved for T is mostly written upwards, it is written downwards in these circumstances:
 After strokes En Ing, see examples above  After stroke Way if no vowel follows:
dwelt indwelt but twilight twilit (These seem to be the only examples, as most instances of w-lt use stroke Wel halved)
Keeping halved Ell mostly upwards has the additional benefit of providing distinction from stroke Ld which is always downwards. Top of page
Derivatives Some derivative outlines may change the direction of the stroke Ell. Keeping derivatives similar to the original is useful but is never done at the expense of a flowing and reliable outline:
ail ailing lose/loose losing/loosing looseness lace lacing
fallen is an exception, compare felon villain, fall-out to enable the next stroke to join
lawful unlawful, lamented unlamented
link unlink, limited unlimited, licensed unlicensed
like likely unlike unlikely unlikeliness
lock unlock, lucky unlucky, located unlocated Some derivative outlines are clearer if they retain the direction of the Ell in the original outline:
ally alliance allying, allow allowing allowance
fool foolish fallacy fallacious eligible ineligible * *avoiding 3 downstrokes and an unclear join between the Ell and Jay
alloy alloying oil oiling owl owling*
See more oil & owl below
*wool-smuggling, a reference to it being a night-time activity
Parts of compound words benefit from keeping their forms, enabling the components can be more easily recognised, but only if a good outline results:
ill illness ill-natured ill-omened quicklime Top of page
Negatives 'unl-' words follow the rules above i.e. use downward Ell, so long as the next stroke can be joined:
unless unlike unloved 'ill-' words will use downward Ell if possible, to signify an initial vowel, making it obvious it is a negative:
limited illimited also unlimited Often that is not possible, because the Ell would not make a good join with the following stroke. In those cases the Ell is repeated. This means that the negative is still obvious even when no vowels are written in:
legal illegal, legitimate illegitimate, licit illicit
liberal illiberal, literate illiterate
logical illogical, liquid illiquid Some words starting ill- are not negatives, the 'in' part meaning 'into', or are formed from the word 'ill', and so follow the normal rules for choice of Ell:
illumination illinition illustration illustrious
illude illusion illusory ill-informed* *contraction
Outlines for similar negatives such as imm- irr- inh- inn- unn- etc are dealt with in the same way (see Theory 18 Prefixes page). This section on negatives points up the necessity for shorthand writers to have a good grasp of how English words are formed and their meanings. These and similar negatives are also described on Theory 18 Prefixes page. Top of page
Joined vowel signs Some initial vowel signs are joined to the stroke Ell:
isle/aisle aisled islet/eyelet oil oily oiled owl* owlet* owlish*
*3rd place vowel joined at the beginning for convenience, these are the only outlines that do this with this diphthong. This is the same liberty that is being taken when the first place 'I' diphthong is joined to the end of the stroke e.g. night.
awl altar/alter alteration Allsop Alston Alcester* *pronounced 'awlster'
all-clear all-fours also all-spice all-hail All-Hallows Do not confuse this with instances of the short form 'all' being joined. The short form includes the L sound, so no stroke Ell is required:
almost always all-wise all-round all-rounder
almighty already although altogether all-important all-in Top of page
Downstroke Ler Downward Ell is thickened to add the unaccented sound of '-er'. It is it is only used where a downward Ell would normally be used, i.e. it never replaces an upward Ell. No vowel sign is required for the unaccented vowel within it. No vowel may come after the stroke, but it can take a final circle S:
fuller feeler feelers fowler/fouler revealer reviler reveller
leveller ovular dweller bewailer roller
nailer/Naylor kneeler antler annular granular
squalor scowler secular vascular
councillor counsellor consular chancellor
chandler stenciller tonsillar inhaler peninsular * *adjective
wine-cellar to avoid an awkward join, but generally thus: bookseller saltcellar In comparison, where upward Ell is used, use stroke Ar to add the '-er' sound:
tailor trailer dealer drawler jeweller bachelor
paler follower miller similar Weller
caller colour cooler healer hillier
puzzler dazzler scrawler wheeler hustler
ocular jocular lenticular muscular crepuscular* *compare corpuscular below As no vowel can come after Ler, use Ray when there is a final vowel:
valour Valerie scholar scullery railer raillery
insular insularity insularism
The vowel in stroke Ler is unaccented, so use full strokes if the vowel is accented:
failure velour/velours chevalier bandolier/bandoleer
chandelier gasolier electrolier hotelier* espalier* *accent is on 2nd syllable Stroke Ler never stands alone, as a lone Ell stroke is always upwards and will always have an accented vowel:
lore lair leer lure allure
lyre liar lower lair lower lour/lower* Loire *= to be gloomy or threatening, rhymes with flower
seller cellar styler staler stellar holier As stroke Ler is only used where a downward Ell would be written, it cannot replace a Hook L:
prevail prevailer but groveller babbler muffler tunneller
circular binocular spectacular corpuscular* *compare crepuscular above Top of page
Downstroke Ld Ell is halved and thickened to indicate the sound of Ld. The stroke Ld is always written downwards. No vowel comes between the L and D sounds, and no vowel comes after it. With the derivatives, it does not matter whether the original Ell was up or down:
ailed old old-age Oldham piled polled pulled boiled bowled Note: bold
bailed billed brawled tailed trailed toiled tolled doled dialled drilled
coiled cowled culled killed skilled scold scaled
scrolled guild/gild geld beguiled regaled
filed foiled failed fold filled field fuelled
veiled reviled revealed mild milled mulled mould/mold
nailed kneeled annealed annulled lolled lulled
riled railed rolled ruled world yelled yield
behold withhold foothold stronghold stranglehold
installed smiled squealed cancelled excelled chiselled
scaffold nestled pencilled stencilled herald
puzzled bristled tussled dazzled drizzled guzzled grizzled nuzzled
Note short forms: build/building told called cold/equalled gold child Stroke Ld can take a final circle or dot ing/dash ings:
folds fields guilds scolds moulds upholds
balding foldings fieldings gelding gilding beholding withholding When it stands alone, stroke Ld can have no attachments, therefore:
sold styled welled swelled hold oldest oldster As stroke Ld is only used to replace a stroke Ell, it cannot replace a Hook L:
prevail prevailed but grovelled babbled muffled tunnelled Where it is not convenient or even possible to write stroke Ld, full strokes must be used:
wrestled whistled frizzled frazzled
mizzled muscled/muzzled embezzled sizzled sozzled
shelled shoaled shield freehold household leasehold Top of page
Unpronounced longhand letter L Most of these have a long vowel before the L sound and a consonant immediately after:
stalk baulk/balk talk chalk caulk/calk walk
folk yolk palm balm psalm psalmist psalmody
calm qualm halm haulm calf/calve half/halve Ralph* *When pronounced 'rafe'
alms almond salmon Malcolm Colquhoun Similar words with a short vowel generally have the L pronounced, and it is therefore shown in the outline:
bulk hulk polka whelk talc talcum
shelf overwhelm palmate palmetto psalmodic
golf gulf self elf Rolf Ralph* 1. When there is only one stroke in the outline: Vowel before, use Ar:
or ore air/ere/e'er/Ayre/heir err ear ire Ayers art
order sorter* sire sir sear/seer/cere sore
*see 'sort' below
swear swore urn earn stern store star steer Vowel after, use Ray:
rye rise/rice Roy ray rays/raise/race row/roe rows/rose/roes roses
rouse/rows rue rues/ruse Reece/Rhys raised/raced roast rust roster
run runs rinses rowan rind rent/rend round rounder
rough/ruff rave reef raft rafter ration Russian
sorrow sorry series serious cirrus cerise sari Sarah
starry story/storey soirée serene siren surround
serif/ceriph seraph surf serve/serf conserve starve S+RT use Ray to make derivatives easier:
sort sorted concert concertina certain certainty
consort consortium serrate serrated resort Top of page
Word starts with a vowel, and a vowel comes after as well, use Ar. It is helpful to insert the 2nd vowel for these:
arrow array awry aria area airy/eyrie* era eerie
*eyrie (eagle's nest) has several
arise arouse erase iris errs/Erse arrest arrester
Aran/Arran Erin iron* Irene Aryan Orion *although the R sound may be slight in some speakers, having the R stroke distinguishes this from 'ion'
around errand/errant orient oration aeration erosion The above only applies when there is no initial attachment, i.e. the vowel starts the word, compare arrow and sorrow above. 2. When the R is followed by another stroke: (a) Always use Ray before these strokes, to get a good join, regardless of vowels:
Tee Dee: arty artist artistic aright irate erratic aerate* *the diphone for 'aer-' is no longer current usage, but may be found in some older shorthand dictionaries.
arid arrayed erode eradicate erudite Urdu aerodynamics * *see above note re 'aer-'
sortie sorority sardine Sardinia sordid
rot rotten rotting rotate ride red/read reading radio
write/right/rite/Wright wrote/rote but writing written are exceptional, to gain speedier outlines for these very common words. Note righting, a different verb (= to put to rights, to set upright)
ratter rider rattle riddle serried sturdy storeyed/storied
Chay Jay: arch urchin search research starch artichoke urge origin
serge surge surgeon sturgeon sargeant storage steerage
roach rich richer ratchet ridge region register Roger
Ith Thee: earth earthed Erith arithmetic orthography orthopaedic
earthen swarthy wrath Rathbone wreath wreathe writhe
KL GL: oracle article articulate argol argle-bargle
circle circulate circulation reclaim wriggle raglan
Kway Gway: request requite Iroquois Uruguay*
*2 pronunciations
Way: Irwin Darwin doorway Irawadi caraway rewind Top of page
(b) Always use Ar before Em Imp/Imb to get a good join, regardless of vowels:
army aroma Arum Aramaic airman ermine
Ormsby ormolu orometry armed armadillo
storm swarm surmise sermon ceremony Sturminster
ram rime/rhyme roam/Rome rum rim ream room
remote remit remain remind reminder Raymond Ryman
remove remedy remade Ramsgate Romney rheumatism
ramble rumble ramp romp rumba rhombus reimpose A circle or hook shows up the join, and therefore Ray can be used before the Em for vowel indication:
rosemary resume raceme rhizome wearisome worrisome
rhenium ransom random referendum Top of page
(c) Both Ar and Ray join well before the remainder of the strokes, so vowel indication is possible:
Pee Bee: eruption arpeggio Orpington orb arbour Arabella urban
rap/wrap rapid report Rupert rob Robert rub rib
rebate rebut rabbit wrapper rubber ripple replace rubble
Kay Gay: ark/arc arctic erect organ organic argon argue
Eric irksome ericaceous oryx aurochs
rock rug rocker record rigger regard
Eff Vee: orfe orphan orifice Orford arrive arrival artful
refuse raffia roughen review rougher river reflect
artifice artificial artifact (also spelled artefact) to avoid an invisible junction between a halved Ar and the Eff.
Ess Zee: heiress Orissa arioso racy racist raciest rosy/Rosie
Sh Zh: Irish sourish rash rasher rush rouge
Ell: early oral/aural aerial Ursula surly sorrel cerulean
sterile sterilisation sterling starling starlight swirl
rile rail roll/role reel real really royal result
surreal surrealism serial/cereal serialise = derivatives of real series ceres which all use Ray, compare with sorrel above
En Ing: Ernie earner sterner arena ornate aeronaut Arnold
irony arsenal runny Ronnie rennet risen Ronald
range syringe surname serenade ring rank S+R+downstroke use Ray for better joins, whether or not a vowel follows the R:
syrup stirrup surplus serpent sorbet Surbiton
cerebral surface survey service starvation Top of page
Medially 1. Ray joins better in most combinations. It is faster to write than Ar and, because there are more downstrokes than upstrokes in Pitman's Shorthand, using Ray keeps a large number of outlines from descending too far. The choice will often be more dependent on its join with the next stroke:
party dirty tardy pardon burden parch birch torch
march larch lurch merge emerge margin
purge spurge barge dirge charge surcharge
park spark sparkle Parker bark
barker Perth birth dearth girth
smartest smirk marble garble gherkin
Martha marsh bargain corny
mark marker America embark empiric
purpose barb barbarous barbecue rhubarb
disturb suburban absorb parade borrowed deride carried
married narrowed parity charity sincerity hilarity
porridge barrage garage garage (2 pronunciations) marriage enrage
territory tyranny Pyrenées garrison guerilla
foreknown foreseen forth/fourth foreclose forefinger
boorish cherish garish moorish avaricious ferocious
ferocity spherical/sphericle* ferried zircon Zurich** *sphericle, noun = little sphere, spherule
**anglicised pronunciation
authority thoroughly Thor Thora thoracic southerly
plural spiral viral secretarial ministerial memorial Top of page
2. If the vowel calls for Ar, it is used where it joins well, mainly before horizontal or upstrokes:
barely bearskin Brierley terseness tiresome tireless
sparsely scarcely securely doorman determine
similarly requirement diurnal angular binocular Ar is sometimes used before a right (clockwise) curve to gain a more flowing outline, despite a vowel following it:
quarrel squirrel flourish
aneurism neural neuralgia but neurotic neurosis Top of page
3. Use Ar before Em, Imp/Imb for a good join, the same as you would initially, without regard to vowel indication:
alarm aquarium quorum squirm
harm harem hermetic carman Carmen
drawing-room ante-room entire inter unremitting
barium delirium curium sanatorium (also spelled sanitorium)
emporium honorarium vivarium Miriam
formal formula formation firearm pharmacy Ray before Em is unavoidable in a few outlines:
theorem thorium rosarium
sensorium insurmountable* surmountable *Such a long outline is not typical of the system. A non-standard suggested contraction could be to disjoin or intersect stroke En with 'surmountable' and write in 3rd position.
Also allowed in these compound words, to maintain readability:
countryman ferryman juryman jury-mast
nurseryman Merriman artilleryman rearmouse/reremouse (=bat) The following are not in the shorthand dictionary, and are suggestions based on the examples above:
cavalryman infantryman pantryman
cameraman quarryman laundryman salaryman A non-standard suggested alternative for 'cameraman', for those likely to use it frequently, might be to use M with R hook i.e. ca-mra-man
The vowel sign should always be inserted for the plural '-men' and all plurals that are formed only by a change of vowel. See Theory 10 Halving/Ray for halved Ray = part port fort etc Top of page
4. Before Kay Gay vowel indication is often possible:
fork ferric forego farrago
cork Carrick cargo Garrick
clerk cleric lark lyric
Sark cirque sarcasm circus circuit stark
Syriac Syracuse sirocco stearic resurrect insurrection Top of page
5. R Hook for brevity Some outlines use R Hook, despite the intervening vowel, to gain an even briefer outline and/or avoid awkward joins. This is only done when the possibility of clashes is absent or minimal:
paragraph parallel perimeter perplex permit
barometer herbarium bacterium thermal term
kerchief kernel/colonel* garter garden garbage target * 'colonel' is the only word whose outline has an R despite its absence in the longhand – solely to indicate pronunciation
course cursor curve curl curtain curt court
curtain garment merger murmur journal jeopardy
fervent verse shirk shark sharp derogatory* *Outline is in 2nd position, to accord with the first vowel of the word, not the first vowel shown in the outline
Such outlines need particular attention to learn because many of them could be written reasonably (but longer) within the main rules, and some might otherwise be very awkward or straggling outlines. Keeping them in your
vocabulary notebook whenever they are encountered is helpful, so they can be practised further. More examples in Theory 2 Vowels/Intervening Vowels and Theory 7 Hooks R L/Vocalisation Top of page
Finally 1. Vowel indication is straightforward in short words:
pair/pear parry prayer prairie bear/bare Barry
tear/tare tarry dare dairy drawer dreary
car carry cure Curie gear Gary
glare glory chore cherry jar Jerry/Gerry
choir/quire query enquire enquiry
fire fiery fore/four forest fur furry (See 'furrier' below)
flower flowery veer vary severe sovereign* *middle vowel is not pronounced
lore lorry seller celery popular popularise
eye-sore ossuary shore sherry assure assurance
czar azure Azores zero Ezra Israel (2 pronunciations)
mare Mary mire miry smear summary
timer Tamara customer customary
miser misery snare narrow laser lacerate
scare scary solitaire solitary
singer ringer/wringer bringer hanger
pillar crawler dealer dollar solar
error arrear airier eerier aurora orrery Ararat
utterer stutterer caterer secretary, et cetera* *Latin = 'and the rest' not spelled 'ect'
freer frier/fryer/friar thrower throatier gatherer
cleverer hoverer manoeuvrer/maneuvrer (also spelled manoeuverer/maneuverer) Words with Hook R can also change to Ray when there is a following vowel:
recover recovery discover discovery prosper prosperous
factor factory victor victory Top of page
3. After 2 downstrokes use Ray to keep the outline from descending too far:
prepare despair disappear aspire stapler taxpayer
ratepayer horse-power proposer trespasser Shakespeare (occasionally Shakespere)
babbler troubler butler splutterer totterer chatterer
hairdresser discoverer ditherer tax-gatherer treasurer
bookstore downstairs upstairs endorser
brigadier bugbear blusterer pesterer plasterer Note: fosterer to avoid awkward join After Eff and Vee, Ar gives a more facile outline, which outweighs having 3 downstrokes:
pacifier testifier defier decipherer justifier
exemplifier baffler trifler muffler shuffler shoveller Top of page
2. After KR or GR Ray is preferable, for a clear join. If Ar were used, the outline would quickly deteriorate into an indeterminate curve:
crier greyer/grayer grower disagreer staggerer swaggerer 3. Use Ray with final hooks, this makes for a fast and forward-moving outline, and easy derivatives:
spurn burn born borne barn stubborn
turn return Saturn western darn churn adjourn
sojourn corn acorn fern Farnham
thorn shorn morning mourn learn
deserve preserve observe turf carafe scarf
portion apportion assertion immersion coercion desertion Typical derivatives:
burned/burnt burning burner turner learner sojourner
apportioner referred referee reference preserved preserver
server deserver observer but carve carver See also 'served/swerved/server/swerver' in Distinguishing Outlines Top of page
If a vowel comes between the R and the N or F/V, Ray is the natural choice:
sporran barren Turin Darren Karen foreign Sharon
marine currency tariff sheriff midriff After a Shun Hook, use whichever joins best:
partitioner practitioner pensioner conditioner
exhibitioner apportioner vacationer motioner commissioner Where both join well, there is opportunity for vowel indication:
redemptioner redemptionary extortioner extortionary
missioner missionary confectioner confectionery * confectionary** * noun=sweets, ** adjective=relating to confections
When only Ray can be used after the Shun Hook, it may be advisable to insert any final vowel:
stationer stationery* stationary** petitioner petitionary probationer probationary *=paper
Mnemonic for spelling these 2 words
Top of page
5. For the sound '-ser' Use Ray after Kay Kway Gay Eff Vee En to gain a speedier outline (no examples found for Gway):
kisser causer accuser crosser cruiser closer successor
boxer taxer mixer fixer vexer
coaxer hoaxer guesser geyser*/geezer geyser* disguiser *2 pronunciations
grocer/grosser aggressor glazier quizzer squeezer
professor refuser officer sacrificer
visor reviser adviser* supervisor (2 pronunciations) dancer
*sometimes spelled advisor, and the adjective is always 'advisory'
mincer cancer announcer pronouncer
sincere sensor answer nicer insert insertion
analyser sympathiser synthesizer thesaurus tyrannosaurus After other strokes, Ar is satisfactory and makes it clear that no vowel follows:
passer pacer opposer baser blazer buzzer/busser abuser
teaser tracer dossier desire bulldozer chaser Chaucer
chooser juicer laser loser utiliser lazier cosier/cozier Top of page
6. Use Ray after straight upstrokes, to maintain direction of writing:
rear reared roar roared uproar rower* rosary
*as in rowing boats
racer/raiser/razer* razor riser theoriser career carrier *raze = to level to the ground
terrier barrier superior mirror emperor
Farrar furore* farrier furrier (more furry) but furrier furriery (fur dealer & fur trade, shorter U vowel) – different derivations provide opportunity for distinguishing outlines *pronunciation varies
juror adhere adhered abhor abhorred
aware beware glassware Delaware
footwear knitwear underwear where anywhere
whirr wherry resource reserve peruser
wiser hisser hussar* ewer yore lawyer
*pronounced with a Z sound
bowyer terror terrorist terrorism compare tourist tourism Three plain straight strokes in the same direction must be avoided, because it would not be clear whether 2 or 3 strokes were meant, so the final stroke uses Ar. The resulting join between Ray and Ar is not ideal, so care is needed to write accurately:
rarer roarer hurrier hairier
abhorrer adherer but horror horary Note the following where the hook or circle shows the junction:
harasser rehearse rehearser resorter
referrer reverter heronry hero-worship The above outlines need not invade the line above, because they are written at a shallow angle. Invading the line above is not critical, because that line is already written; descending too far is more to be avoided because you will have to jump over the lower part of that outline when writing on the next line. Top of page
7. Hook R is used for a slurred vowel (generally an unaccented syllable), Ar and Ray for a clearly sounded vowel:
offer fir ferry, rougher refire refer reverse/refers
river revere reverie, proffer prefer, prover proverb
deafer defer, advert divert, divers* diverse** *= people who dive, or several/some (archaic)
**= various, assorted, different
8. After doubling + N hook, use whichever joins the best:
plunderer ponderer tenderer wanderer saunterer
mutterer/motherer smotherer murderer adventurer
orderer charterer flatterer flounderer thunderer
luckier liqueur – using Ar would result in an illegible outline. See also Theory 2 Vowels/Intervening vowels Top of page
After Hay Use Tick Hay before Ar:
hire hair here/hear harp harpoon harper herb herbal
hark hearken Harvey harvest Harvard hoarse horse horsy
horn horned hornet hernia harness harsh
hurl hurled heart/hart hurt harder herder hoarder Use downward Hay before Ar if forming a derivative:
high higher hoe hoer Use Upward Hay before Ray:
harrow hurry hearth Herrick Hereford Harwich
herald Harrap hairiness harangue hieroglyph Dot Hay has no effect on which R stroke to use:
warhorse unhurt unheard light-hearted Top of page
After W Semicircle
W Semicircle behaves similarly to Circle S at the beginning of an outline:
wire wear/ware weir warm worse
warn worn war warrior
wiry wary worry weary wart wort
warren warrant warden Warwick worth
world warmer warehouse wiriness
wired ward wardrobe weird wearer W Semicircle + Ray is speedier before downstrokes, despite absence of vowel after the R:
warp war-paint war-path wire-puller
Worsborough warble wirable war-office worship warship Top of page
Derivatives A final Ar may change to Ray in a derivative, to avoid awkward joins or a descending outline:
bare bare-faced bareness bare-headed force forceful
moor moorhen moorfowl persevere perseverance
sparing sparingly boring boringly retiring retiringly
adoring adoringly adoration glaring glaringly
jarring jarringly enduring enduringly endurance endurable
admiring admiringly admiration admirable
enquiring enquiringly stirring stirringly stern sternmost
reassuring reassuringly reassurance inspire inspiration
discern discerning discernment* ornament *to distinguish it from discerning
unerringly clear clearness clearance If there is a hook between the two strokes, the other R stroke may join better:
arch archer orchard search searcher urge urger
lard larder quart quarter fort fortress
earth Arthur forth/fourth farther war warfare
roam/Rome roamer/Romer romp romper warm warmer
origin orange arrange rearrange arid Arundel
Note: arm armour/armor armourer/armorer armoury/armory Ar is more legible for -rful, despite 3 downstrokes:
powerful powerfully prayerful tearful fearful
sire seer (prophet) compare sigher seer (one who sees) sayer sower/sewer (one who sews) which are 2-syllable derivatives and therefore more readable retaining their original stroke Ess. This is in contrast to single syllable derivatives, which generally change their form as necessary e.g. said, seen, sown, sawn, sighed (to be discussed on a later page.)
suer/sewer* (drain) sewage (contents) sewerage (the drainage system) *2 pronunciations given.
'Suer' is a 2-syllable derivative and would therefore keep the stroke Ess whichever vowel sign is used. 'Sewer' (drain) is not a derivative, but uses stroke Ess because of the triphone, and also to form its derivatives conveniently, i.e. sewerage, sewage. (Latin: ex + aquaria = ex + ewer = sewer) Top of page
Stroke Rer This is a thickened Ar, always written downwards:
 Its central vowel is always unaccented and never vocalised  Only used to replace a final stroke Ar in derivatives  Never starts an outline, must have another stroke or an attachment (tick, circle, semicircle, loop) before it
poor poorer bore borer fair fairer hire hirer
hear hearer wear wearer explore explorer
sourer storer swearer but airer airers Note: sourest Stroke Ard Ar is halved and thickened for the addition of D:
   
No vowel may come between the R and D sounds. Can stand alone (unlike Rer which cannot) Never has a final vowel after it Used for the short forms 'yard' and 'word'
aired erred sired sword surd soured stirred starred steered sward
hired heard/herd poured prepared repaired aspired
barred/bard bored/board beard blared absurd tired retired dared desired
card cord/chord cored curd cured cleared acquired charred jeered
fired ford feared fjord veered revered
shard sherd shared shored showered assured assuredly* *Exceptional, in that a vowel is allowed after the Ard stroke, being lightly-sounded
marred mired admired nard nerd un-aired Use halved Ray to avoid illegible joins:
geared gored glared lard larding lording
leered layered lowered laird* Lord** lord** (short form) *best always vocalised **If personal name, use full outline, as context cannot help = Lord's Cricket Ground, Mr Lord If title or noun, use short form = Lord Nelson, The Lord's Prayer
Where stroke Ard is not convenient, used halved Ray:
boarding-house boarding-school If there is a final vowel after the RD sound, use full strokes:
hard hardy bird birdy tarred tardy
word wordy weird weirdo Note also hairdo Any vowel sign following it (i.e. the next syllable) is written against the next stroke:
harden hardened ordain ordained inordinate ordinary
Dot Ing: herding hoarding boarding but Harding Arding as stroke Ing is preferable for proper names. Ard is used for the past tense of outlines with a doubled stroke + N hook:
ponder pondered tender tendered splinter splintered An outline using R Hook or doubling uses halving for '-ered', rather than Ard, as the syllable is mostly unaccented:
bicker bickered better bettered puckered occurred incurred
lacquered honoured mannered ushered hammered badgered
father fathered matter mattered mutter/mother muttered mothered
order ordered enter entered compare: inter interred deter deterred where the accent is on the last syllable. Top of page
Prefix IrrThis prefix means either a negative (same as 'un-') or 'in/into'. Pairs of such outlines need to be distinctive as most of the time they will be unvocalised. This is achieved by changing the R stroke if possible, or adding an additional R stroke. This method is only concerned with producing pairs of different outlines and avoiding bad joins, not with showing the meaning of the prefix or any attempt to reflect the two R's in the longhand: 1. Change Ray to Ar, this accords with normal vowel indication:
relevant irrelevant replaceable irreplaceable
retrievable irretrievable religious irreligious 2. If the Ray cannot be changed because a bad join would result, then add Ar to the beginning. No vowel sign comes between the two R strokes:
radiate irradiate reclaimable irreclaimable
redeemable irredeemable reducible irreducible rational irrational 3. If the outline already uses Ar, then repeat the Ar:
remissible irremissible remediable irremediable* *Note the use of the halved stroke, to prevent further descent of the outline
Some are not part of a pair, so they follow normal rules:
irrigate irritate irruption iridium* iridescence* irascible* *Single R, from 'iris' and 'ira' (Latin=anger). Iridium also pronounced 'eye-ridium'
recoverable irrecoverable regular irregular regularly irregularly
responsible/responsibility irresponsible/irresponsibility, respective irrespective, removable irremovable
These are normal outlines: removably responsibly irresponsibly responsibilities* *Aways vocalising the outlines for 'response' and 'responses' would give additional insurance against misreading.
If unsure about an 'irr-' word during dictation, add the extra initial Ar anyway, whether it is correct or not – it will be perfectly legible. Avoiding hesitation during dictation is the highest priority, but the outline should be looked up and drilled at the first opportunity, so that you are always using the shortest outline available. These and similar negatives are also described on Theory 18 Prefixes page. R not shown Suffixes -ward -wort -wart -yard. These are unvocalised when used as suffixes. See Theory 10 Halving page for description and examples. Follow normal rules if writing as whole words:
ward wort wart yard* *short form The following outlines omit the R as even in the longhand the R is redundant and unpronounced:
Worcester/Wooster Worcestershire worsted = woollen cloth, named after UK town of Worstead
The adjective/adverb worse worst and verb worst* worsted* are pronounced as normal and so the R is shown in their outlines.
Stroke Imp/Imb Represents the compound sound of MP or MB, no vowel comes between, but can have a vowel either side:
amp imp impish samp sump swamp swampy
stamp stump stumpy impose impostor imposture impetus
impetuous umpteen empathy sympathy impetigo humpty-dumpty
impel impeller impelled impale impala ampoule
ampère amperage impair impure impurity empower
umpire empire empirical emperor imperative
imperial imperious empanel impact Simpkin
impeach impinge impunity amputate imputed impudent impedance
symposium Simpson Sampson (compare Samson) Thompson/Tompson
pump pumping pampas pompous pomposity pompom * pumpkin *same as pompon = wool tassel; 'pompom' & 'pom-pom' is also a type of automatic cannon Top of page
Pompeii (pronunciations vary) Pompey plump primp
bump bumpkin bumptious blimp
temp tempo tempera temperance temperate temporary See temporal below
timpanist Tampa tempest tempestuous trump trumpery tramp trampoline
damp damp-proofing dump dumpling dumpster Dempster Dempsey
camp decamp campus Kempsey campanula Kampala
scampi skimp crimp scrimp clamp
clump gump grumpy gramps* gazump
*Colloquial for 'grandpa, grandfather'
mumps mumpish chomp champ chimp jump jumpy
lamp lumpy slump limp Limpsfield palimpsest
Olympia Olympic Olympiad ramp rampage rump
reimpose reimport frump flump vamp revamp thump Top of page
shampoo shrimp wimp wampum mugwump
hump hemp hempseed Hampshire humpback Humboldt
imbue umbo samba embus emboss embossed
umbel umbilical ambulance embolism embellish
ambush ambitious embassy embezzle imbecile embarrass embark
embog ambiguous ambivalent imbibe* imbiber* *Note the first B is part of the stroke Imb
embody ambassador ambidextrous Timbuctoo/Timbuktu plumbum plumbago
bombe* bamboo bamboozle Bombay bumbo bimbo *= ice cream dessert, the B is pronounced, derived from French Top of page
bambino bombast bombastic bombyx brumby
tambour tambourine tombola Dombey disembowel
jumbo jamboree Chimborazo akimbo camboose
cambium cambial Kimbolton Abercrombie* cambistry *Vowel may vary 'crum' or 'crom'
Cambodia gamba Gambia gumbo gamboge
limbo lambaste Lambeth lumbago Colombo* alembic according to speaker
mamba Mombasa Mozambique embalm embalmed
*Vowels may vary
nimbus nimby namby-pamby mumbo-jumbo
Zambia Zambezi Zimbabwe* zombie
*Note the first B is part of the stroke Imb
rumba rhomb* rhombus rhombic rambutan rumbustious
*The B is pronounced
flambeau flambé framboesia/frambesia thrombosis symbiosis * symbiotic* *Suggested outlines, not in dictionary Top of page
Comparison with the words they are derived from (or related to) shows how the stroke Imp replaces the plain stroke Pee:
pulse impulse polite impolite potent impotent
port import porter importer pervious impervious
passive impassive pasta impasto pediment impediment
pose impose position imposition pertinent impertinent poverty impoverish
pass impasse passable impassable partial impartial
patience impatience patient impatient*
*See Distinguishing Outlines List 3
part impart impartation but impartment*
*For ease of joining '-ment'
piety impiety pious* impious* impiously* *'pious' has different vowels from the other two
pecuniary impecunious peccable impeccable
bay embay embayment bale embale
battle embattle bank embank bug humbug
bosom embosom boldest embolden unbalanced imbalance * * 'balance' is a short form (List 1) Top of page
Hooks N Hook:
pompon* Pompeian pumpion plumpen tympan tampon trombone
*same as
dampen champion chimpanzee champagne campaign campion crampon
lumpen lampoon Olympian rampion Grampian
sampan impugn impawn impen* hempen *enclose in a pen Shun Hook:
ambition impassion imposition reimposition Where there is no vowel before the Shun Hook, the lightly sounded P is omitted and stroke Em is used:
exemption presumption resumption consumption assumption redemption gumption R Hook is described together with Doubling below, as both methods represent the same sound = imper/imber Never takes L Hook, use either stroke Ell or compound consonant Pel Bel.
impel (more above) ample (more below) Top of page
Halving Basic Imp/Imb cannot be halved, as that form is already allocated to MD. Only the hooked form can be halved. 1. When no vowel follows, the P is hardly sounded. It is therefore omitted and a halved Em is used to represent the M(P)T sound. This reflects the pronunciation and produces a shorter outline. Do not be misled by the final '-ed' in the longhand spelling, the pronunciation is always the T sound. The compound sound MBD (i.e. with no vowels between) does not occur, which is why the halved and thickened Em stroke was allocated to the sound of MD.
pumped plumped prompt pre-empt bumped tempt tramped dumped
champed chomped jumped camped encamped unkempt decamped
cramped crimped clamped skimped scrimped exempt
lumped slumped limped gazumped revamped thumped romped shrimped
humped stamped stomped swamped sumptuary
empty temptation temptress impromptu presumptuous have a vowel after the T sound, so would require a stroke anyway, to write the vowel against. With such words you could use stroke Imp if you wanted, but your outline would not match the theory book or the dictionary. You cannot however use a thickened halved Em, because that is not available, being already used to represent plain MD. Compare the following pairs: MT which represents M(P)T, and MD:
bumped bummed tempt tamed dumped deemed
ramped rammed cramped crammed stumped stemmed
Note the halved Em behaves as per normal halving rules, it can have a vowel between the M and the T sounds:
prompt promote prompter promoter limped (='limt') limit Names and place names must remain clear, as context cannot help, so stroke Imp is used, even though the P sound may be spoken just as lightly as the above words:
Ampthill Hampden Hampton Hampstead compare Hamstead
Compton Crompton Bampton Frampton Southampton * *correct with one longhand H, no aspirate is pronounced or required in the outline
Speakers will vary according to how much they pronounce the light P sound, and some may leave it out altogether, but the shorthand outlines should remain constant. What people say when they are speaking carefully may be entirely different from their pronunciation in actual fast usage. Top of page
2. If there is vowel after the MP/MB, add stroke Tee or Dee:
impute trumpet strumpet strombite crumpet ambit gambit
wombat limpet limpid embayed imbued impede
stampede sambaed mamboed ombudsman rhomboid flambéed shampooed Top of page
3. Halved if Hooked Can be halved if it has an R Hook or N Hook:
hampered rampart whimpered Lambert slumbered cambered clambered scampered
impend/impenned* impugned impound impawned ambient Note: impended impounded *impenned = past tense of impen, to enclose in a pen
dampened championed campaigned lampooned lambent rampant flamboyant 4. Not halved when it has Shun Hook, use halved Ish+N Hook:
ambitioned* impassioned** impassionate *adjective = full of ambition, suggested outline, not in shorthand dictionary. A lone stroke, thickened, halved and with shun hook is too indistinct to be reliable. See also Theory 9 Shun Hook/halved stroke page. **See Distinguishing Outlines List 3 impassioned/impatient Top of page
Doubled or with R Hook
The sound of imper/imber (with the accent on the first syllable and a slurred second vowel) is represented both by doubling and by using the R Hook. The two strokes shown above represent identical sounds, and which to use depends on the convenience of the join. See also the Quick Reference Table on Theory 11 Doubling page Use the doubled stroke when it is the only stroke in the outline, or after a downstroke or Em:
amber ember umber sombre/somber simper stamper
pamper pumper plumper bumper Bamber
tamper tamperer temper temperament temporal*
*This is exceptional, as the vowel after the P is 'or' not 'er', but doubling is used to prevent similarity with temporary/temporarily, see above
temperature distemper damper dumper
chomper chamber jumper September December but November (contraction)
mumper thumper Northumberland Top of page
Use the hooked form in all other cases i.e. after upstrokes and straight horizontals (the doubled stroke would join perfectly well to a horizontal, but the hooked form is preferable so that it can be halved for past tenses):
camper/camber scamper Camberwell Camberley Cumberland
cucumber Stogumber whimper romper reimburse
hamper humper/Humber lumper/lumber/lumbar slumber limper/limber Lamberhurst If the Imp has an N hook, the doubling adds -der (these 4 words are the only examples):
imponderable imponderability imponderous impounder Note: ponderable ponderous Past tenses: the doubled form changes to Em and halved Per/Ber:
tampered tempered timbered simpertinentimpered chambered pampered As doubling of stroke Imp only adds -er, to add the sound of -eter, stroke Tee with R Hook is used:
trumpeter embitter imputer Lampeter If there is no central vowel, then the P sound is only lightly sounded and need not be represented: use Em doubled, which adds the -ter sound as per normal doubling rules:
prompt prompted prompter tempt tempted tempter
Plumptre (plump-ter & plum-ter) The dictionary gives no final vowel for the first outline. Isaac Pitman's Phonographic & Pronouncing Dictionary of 1894 gives the name 'Plumptree' same as the first outline but with a heavy final vowel to match the spelling. This is a town-derived surname = place of plum trees.
Note: pumpernickel* sempervirent* shrimper** shrimp *For ease of joining nouns
**Not doubled, to provide added distinction from 'shrimp' as both are
Top of page
When not to use 1. Vowel between: not used if there is vowel between the M and the P/B sounds:
map mapped mope moped (past tense of mope) moped (bike) maypole myopia
mob mobbed mobber mobile Namibia
amoeba/ameba demob somebody homebody 2. Con/com dot: the representing of con/com/cum, either by the initial dot or by disjoining, includes the M sound, so only the following P or B stroke needs to be written:
compel compare complain comprise recompense encumber Top of page
3. MBL: If no vowel between, or only a slurred unaccented vowel, use plain Em and Pel/Bel:
ample amply amplify employ imply implication
implore implode amble umbles Embleton emblem
emblazon pimple preamble bumble bramble
temple Templeton template tumble tremble dimple
Campbell (pronounced 'camble') gamble/gambol crumple crumble scramble
jumble fumble thimble assembly shambles shambolic * *not in dictionary, suggested outline based on 'symbolic' below
sombrous sombrero sample example simple
stumble symbol/cymbal symbolic but symbology
mumble nimble ensemble* resemble rumble
*Anglicised pronunciation
humble Hambleton wimple Wembley Wimbledon Top of page
4. MPR MBR with no vowel between, use plain Em and Per/Ber:
empress impress impression imprint imprison
improper improvise imprudent lamprey
embryo embrace Ambrose ambrosia embrasure
embroil umbrella imbroglio umbrage
Flamborough Northumbria Cumbria Hambrook
Note also Hamburg Cambourne Wimborne Top of page
5. Derivatives starting Im+per and Im+pl 1. If the word is derived from one that uses a hook i.e. PR PL BR BL, retain that form and use stroke Em before it:
person impersonate personal impersonal perfect imperfect*
permanence impermanence perforated imperforated
permeable impermeable permissible impermissible
placate implacable placement emplacement plausible implausible Top of page
6. Compound words: not used where the M and P/B belong to different words:
timepiece tomboy dumb-bell homebred homebrewed
bumboat gumboot gumboil hymn-book
time-bomb plum-pudding stormbound lamp-post*
*choice of full outline or contraction (this contraction is ignoring the rule, as the outline is sufficiently distinctive)
7. PH: Not used where the longhand P is part of PH = F sound:
triumph lymph nymph galumph
amphitheatre amphibian amphora samphire
pamphlet emphasise symphony emphysema Top of page
8. Silent B: A longhand silent B has no place in shorthand and the M is treated as normal:
aplomb* plumber bomb bombing tomb dumb
*Anglicised pronunciation (from
comb succumb climb crumb
lamb limb thumb womb numb number (= more numb, pronounced 'nummer')
lambed limbed thumbed combed climbed Stroke Ish only has one form, but can be written in two directions:  The default is downwards, but is written upwards for convenient joining or to maintain balance, similar motion or lineality (=keeping to the line)  Can take Hooks  With R Hook = 'Sher' is always written downwards  With L Hook = 'Shel' is always written upwards  In some instances Ish + N Hook is used instead of Shun Hook  Denotes the suffix '-ship' in derivatives  Used for short forms: shall/shalt wish wished sure short (Short Forms List 4)  The thick stroke 'Zhee' is always written downwards, with no exceptional uses, so is not part of this page Initially Medially Finally Hook between Hooked Ish
Halving Balancing, Angles & Similar Motion Lineality Derivatives Suffix -ship Words of non-English origin Initially 1. Alone = always down
ash shy Shaw show showy showiest shyest she shoe/shoo
shine Sean/Shaun Shane shun shown shin ocean ashen Asian
sash sachet/sashay Sasha/Sacha stash swash swish shyster Schuster
shot shut sheet shoot shout
satiate satiation sashed stashed shunt/shunned shined shinned
shatter shutter/shudder shooter shouter shunter Top of page
2. Down before most strokes
Pee Bee: shop shape Sheppey ship sheep
shabby Sheba Ashby Ashbourne
Tee Dee: Ashton Shetland shouted shiatsu shittim-wood
shade shed shadow shoddy shied shoed/shooed
Chay Jay: short-change shortage shoji
Kay Gay: shock shack shake Shakespeare shook Chicago shaggy
Ith Thee: sheath sheathe sheathed
Ess (Zee) Ish (Zhee): chassis shush shortish shrewish Shushan shish-kebab
Em Imp: sham shame ashamed shimmy shamrock shemozzle
showman shaman shambles shampoo
En Ing: shiny shyness ashiness Shannon shunted shandy shantung Oceania
sheeting shouting Shanghai shank Shanklin shingle
Ar Rer Ard: shire shore share shareholder sharer shared shirt shear/sheer
assure Shirley Charlotte shower (one who shows) shower (water)
Ray: sherry/Cherie ashery shorn Sharon sheriff cheroot usherette
assurance Sheerness Sheraton Sheridan Sherwood
Hay: Sheehy Scheherezade Top of page
3. Up before these strokes to make a good join:
Eff Vee: sheaf Sheffield shaft shift shifter shifty
sheaves shove shoved shave shaven Siobhan/Siobhain
Ell: shallow shawl shell Shelley shale shoal Sheila
social socialise Seychelles shieling/shealing* shilly-shally *Derivative of shiel, therefore stroke Ell, compare with shilling below which uses the L Hook
shield shelled shoaled sheltie/shelty shelter shoulder
The first two words below are compound words, so would take upward Ish because of the preceding stroke, but they show that Way joins best to upward Ish if a new word forced a choice. Using W semicircle is the best option for single words:
Way (Yay): brushwood dishwasher shwanpan schwa* Schwarz** *=the name of the unaccented vowel sound e.g. sofa, metal; suggested outline, not in dictionary **=anglicised 'shworts', not in dictionary, suggested outline based on 'shirts'; see below for 'shv' version Top of page
Medially The direction of Ish is chosen to fit in with the stroke before the Ish. If the stroke after the Ish doesn't join well, there is always the option of disjoining:
insure censure machinist misshape* *Circle S shown, although hardly pronounced, resulting in a much more readable outline.
bashful marchioness cashmere/Kashmir
Compounds: fisherman bushman store-ship wash-house
sunshine moonshine marshmallow fish-market See also Derivatives below, where the addition of grammatical endings makes the Ish medial. Top of page
Finally 1. Downwards after most strokes:
Pee Bee: push pettish potash capacious captious apish waspish
bush bash abash rubbish snobbish sebaceous
Tee (but not Dee): tish toyish attaché latish sluttish Saltash sottish sweetish
cultish coquettish moustache crustacea cetaceous/setaceous * Note also: crustacean/crustation** cetacean *cetaceous = relating to whales/dolphins; setaceous = bristly
**crustacean=shellfish; crustation=the formation of crust
Although plain Tee always takes downward Ish, stroke Dee (plain or with attachments) always take upward Ish. The reason for this is not explained, but I am assuming it is to provide an extra differentiation between the two strokes.
Chay Jay: Chesham (2 pronuniations) childish Joshua Jewish
Kay Gay: cash crash clash brackish rakish Turkish thickish
ticklish cliquish precocious lickerish*/liquorice/licorice** *greedy/lecherous **=sweet confection – different derivations but both can have variant spelling 'liquorish'
efficacious factious fractious vexatious cattish skittish Scottish
Scotia gash gracious sagacious sluggish roguish
negotiate negotiation ingratiate
Kway (Gway): quash squash vanquish but anguish* languish* *outline omits the G sound, and note also that 'relinquish distinguish extinguish' are contractions that omit the 'guish' part
Ith Thee: etherish spathaceous acanthaceous
Ish (Zhee): freshish* Tarshish* baksheesh/bakshish hasheesh/hashish beige-ish/beigeish* *Suggested outlines, not in dictionary
Em Imp: mash smash mesh mushroom Amish (pronunciations vary) Hamish machine
famish Flemish blemish Romish squeamish tam-o'-shanter (=tammy, a type of beret/cap)
ambush impish lumpish dampish vampish frumpish
En Ing: nash/gnash tenaceous pretentious Danish tarnish burnish nourish
clannish mannish womanish admonish diminish
pernicious pugnacious carbonaceous licentious English *
initiate initiation initiative differentiate differentiation
Ell: lash leash luscious slash slushy stylish yellowish
delicious fallacious malicious demolish galoshes Galashiels
Wel: Welsh/welch Walsh woolshed
Ar: harsh Horsham Irish
Ray: rash rush rawish parish bearish boorish
cherish marsh Marcia nightmarish Moorish
Horatio Hiroshima voracious* veracious* avaricious* *voracious=huge appetite, veracious=truthful, avaricious=greedy for gain
Hay Way Hway Yay: hash hush wash woosh/whoosh wheyish whitish yashmak
Reversed FR VR: fresh freshen liverish silverish cleverish Top of page
2. Upwards after these strokes:
Dee: dosh dash dish radish widish wildish Yiddish
modish prudish saddish Swedish audacious seditious mendacious
Eff Vee: fish officious facetious efficient/efficiently/efficiency * sufficient/sufficiently/ sufficiency* *Contractions
flash flesh afresh facia/fascia fasciation
lavish elvish slavish vivacious
ravish knavish feverish devilish
Ess (Zee): associate associated association
Down Ell: foolish vilish retain downward Ell of 'fool' & 'vile', compare Felisha Felicia
THR: thrash thresh thrush three-ish Top of page
Hook between If there is a hook between Ish and the stroke it is joined with, Ish will be written in the most convenient direction: 1. Initial Ish is always upwards before the following:
KL KR GR: shackle shaker sugar chagrin/shagreen Note: shocker* *probably as a distinguishing outline from 'shaker'
reversed FR VR: chauffeur Schaeffer shaver shover shiver
MR: shammer shamer shimmer Other hooks do not affect an initial Ish:
shopper shipper shepherd/Sheppard shoeblack shootable
shattery shattered shuttered shuddered shuttle shuddered shiner shunner
shuffle shovel Top of page
2. Final Ish will follow the motion of the intervening hook ('similar motion'):
punish Spanish replenish banish brandish blondish outlandish
peevish briefish toughish deafish deficient/deficiently/deficiency * Babylonish *Contraction
finish vanish Cavendish faintish*/fiendish* compare faint fiend fiendishly *There is no room on the outline to show the different places occupied by the vowel in the first syllable, so these two words have virtually identical outlines. A non-theory suggestion would be to write 'fiendish' with the Ish through the line.
thinnish heathenish varnish furnish Top of page
Hooked Ish 1. R Hook – Sher is always down:
usher Esher shrew shrewish Shrewsbury (note vowel) sharp Shropshire shrapnel
shrub shrubbery sherbet shred shrewd shroud shredder shrewder
shark shirk shriek shrug shrew-mouse shrimp shrink
shrine enshrined shrill shroffage shrift shrivel Shrove
pusher pressure basher brasher brusher blusher
Derbyshire (note vowel) dasher Cheshire casher kosher gusher Note: cashier
clasher crusher rasher rusher lavisher fisher/fissure Note: fishery
flasher fresher refresher thrasher thresher
finisher lasher slasher polisher masher smasher
burnisher tarnisher Shoreditch off-shore Ayrshire Perthshire
beneficiary tertiary fiduciary penitentiary evidentiary
Sher halved: pressured fissured tonsured ushered short* shortest shorten shorter *Short form
Use Ray if Sher cannot join:
punisher replenisher banisher varnisher furnisher Note: furniture Top of page
2. L Hook – Shel is always up, and the central vowel is not shown if it is a short E or a slurred vowel:
shelf bookshelf shelve shellac shellfish
nuptial bushel racial Herschel specialist Note: special*
potential provincial credential presidential fiducial
official facial beneficial superficial sacrificial
*Short form
residential torrential deferential differential Note: defer differ
For -ly, add the dot vowel: officially superficially initially essentially
sheepishly boyishly boorishly waspishly
lavishly slavishly peevishly feverishly
flashily fleshly fleshliness foolishly Use for -ciality, and the central IA vowels are not written:
partiality speciality* specialty superficiality potentiality
*Note the vowel before
the Tee
Used for some words beginning 'shel-' to gain a more convenient outline (there are no words beginning 'shl-' that they could clash with):
shilling Shelton Sheldon Shelburne Never used on its own for the word 'shell', but can replace the normal outline in compound words:
egg-shell snail-shell bomb-shell tortoise-shell * *S is not pronounced in this compound word, so no Circle S is shown in the dictionary outline but if you did insert it, the outline would be just as quick to write and probably be easier to recognise when transcribing. Compare with 'misshape' above.
Can be halved for D in derivatives:
marshall/martial marshalled bushelled initialled Top of page
3. N Hook Stroke Ish + N Hook is used instead of the Shun Hook after triphones and where the Shun Hook is not convenient or appropriate to write:
continuation sinuation tuition situation* striation* *Direction of Ish balances the initial attachment
Shun Hook is not used in these derivatives because it would not join, so full strokes are necessary:
nation nationhood secession secessionist concession concessionary More details on Theory 9 Shun Hook/On halved stroke & When not to use Top of page
Halving For past tenses, where the Ish already makes an angle the direction can remain the same, but these do need extra care as the angle is not very sharp and a halved Ish is less clear than a full stroke:
pushed upshot splashed brushed blushed bloodshot dashed trashed
cashed gushed rushed gnashed astonished finished varnished After curved strokes a full-length Ish often continues the curve. But when halved it needs an angle to show its different length, so it may need to change direction:
fish fished officiate officiator vitiate vitiation * flash flashed *to match vitiate, compare with fasciation above
fresh freshet refresh refreshed impoverish impoverished The same applies if it is the curved stroke before or after that is halved:
flattish fetish shallot If halving cannot be done because no angle can be achieved in either direction, then upward Ish+Tee is used:
lash lashed unleashed polish polished
abolish abolished relish relished demolish demolished
mashed smashed meshed blemished famished skirmished – these provide easier outlines than a halved upward Ish. A joined 'shunt/shund' stroke is mostly written upwards to keep the outline moving forwards. The examples in the second row show where Shun Hook cannot be retained for the past tense (see also Theory 9 Shun Hook/On halved stroke):
ancient initiand freshened machined Note: harshened
impassioned sanctioned unctioned pensioned mentioned dimensioned Top of page
Balancing, Angles & Similar Motion If a straight stroke has an initial circle or hook, the Ish will go the opposite way to balance the outline, with the purpose of keeping the stroke straight (same as happens with Shun Hook). If all the curves went the same way, the outline would be difficult to read and become illegible when written at speed. 'Similar motion' is beneficial only between two consecutive curves to aid speed, so long as it remains clear which strokes/hooks are involved. When the outline has a mixture of straight and curved strokes, possibly of different lengths, plus various hooks, then it is necessary to introduce angles to keep it readable:
push plush splash spacious species bush blush bluish
precious prescience prescient brash brush soberish
tosh superstitious* but trash atrocious nutritious Patricia bitterish *Balance takes preference over lineality here, as a reliable outline is more important than avoiding a descending outline.
fairish flourish squarish mopish mobbish would be unreadable if written with downward Ish.
ashlar Schiller would be unreadable if written with upward Ish. For SH-L-R words which are derivatives, as under, I would suggest adding stroke Ray, in order to preserve the original outline, although no precedent outline is available in the dictionary (stroke Ler can only be used to replace an existing downward Ell):
marshaller* busheller* initialler* sheller* *Suggested outlines, not in dictionary After halved BR, the Ish can remain downward, presumably as a help to distinguish them from outlines that have full BR + upward Ish:
British* broadish broadsheet Bradshaw
*Distinguishing outline, compare with
brutish below
In compound words and phrases, the Ish may change direction in order to form the necessary angle or continue the motion of the preceding hook:
sheets balance-sheets proof-sheets shots shoot off-shoot overshot earshot Top of page
Lineality Ish goes upwards to keep the outline compact, to avoid 3 or more descending strokes, but only if the joins remain good:
bishop sheepish sheepshank shipshape foppish
herbaceous furbish brutish thirtyish fictitious
disputatious patience patient, peashooter but sharpshooter for balance Top of page
Derivatives In compound words, retain the original direction wherever possible:
shyly shoeless shoehorn ash-hole Ashley Ashford compare Sheila chauffeured
overshadow showroom snowshoe sash-line sash-window show-ground
unsocial antisocial shatterproof fish-shop toyshop (compare bishop above)
shell-shock unshackle unsheathe With most endings, the direction of Ish does not need to change:
pushing bashing dashing crashing punishing finishing
washable crushable perishable flushable accomplishable * *The stroke Kay represents the prefix 'accom-' (see Theory 18 Prefixes/Accom page)
boyishness freshness bookishness brackishness stylishness
rashness noxiousness sluggishness foolishness
preciously atrociously audaciously tenaciously graciously ferociously The stroke direction only changes to make a better join or more compact outline:
abolishable polishable demolishable
vicious viciousness but viciously, fishiest but Fascist to match Fascism
round roundish oldish Top of page
Suffix -ship Stroke Ish is used to denote the suffix '-ship' and occasionally the noun 'ship' (=boat), either joined or disjoined, and in full where that is more legible:
citizenship township friendship hardship courtship fellowship worship This is dealt with more fully on Theory 20 Suffixes Contracted/ship page. Top of page
Words of non-English origin Words of French origin often pronounce their longhand 'ch' with the Ish sound, although the rest of the word generally accords with English pronunciation. Avoid the error of using Chay to match the longhand:
chandelier chamois château chaperon/chaperone charade charlatan
chauvinism chef Chevrolet chevron* chevronel* *The normal rule is to use upwards Ish and reversed VR (as in shaver above) but presumably the above form is used to allow the derivative 'chevronel'
chivalry chic chicane chicanery chiffon champagne
crèche cache cachet quiche panache
Top of page
Longhand spelling 'sch' varies in pronunciation:
SH: schist schmaltz schmooze schnapps schnauzer* Schwarz** * 'shnowt-ser' ** 'shvarts', dictionary outline, see 'shw' version above)
schnorkel schnorrer scheelite schilling schorl schottische
Schubert Schubertian borsch borscht meerschaum
schedule (British=SH) schedule (American=SK) sciolto nasturtium
atichoo/atishoo issue* issued issuer tissue* tissued *Dictionary outlines. If you used Ish you would then have to change the past tenses to much longer outlines with full stroke Dee.
SK: schema scholar schizophrenia schizanthus
scherzo schism ischiatic eschatology
scholium schooner Pasch paschal
CH: escheat eschew kitsch klatsch 1. CON- COM- CUM- COG(a) Dot Initial con/com is represented by a dot written at the head of the stroke:
 Place it exactly at the head of the stroke, and not slightly to one side or the other where it might be mistaken for a first place vowel sign.
 The vowel that comes after the con is the one that decides the position  
of the stroke. As there are so many con/com words, this is an extra aid to recognition. The dot represents the whole of the syllable – do not write an extra stroke M or N just because the longhand has two of that letter. The con dot is not omitted in the way that vowel dots are omitted at will.
compose comparison comparative compatible competition compress
complain complicated comprehend compute computed computer
conspire combat combine combination committee contest contrive
container commuter control contract contribute continue contemporary
conceit Constance constant construe constrain construction constriction
constitute constituted constitution condemn condition conditional conduit
condense concede consider commodity commodore congeal conjoin conjugation
conjecture connect connection concave concussion concoction
commix concur concrete concord conclude conclusion consecutive
conscript congress Congreve congratulate congregate
conglomeration confuse confide confirm conflict
convey connive convention convenient
conscious conscientious concession consist consistent comestible
commemorate commemorative commeasurable consume consumer
common commonsense common-law commoner commune communism
consign consent consensus consonant commend command commander
commence comment commentary concentrate concentration console conceal
conciliation constellation concern conurbation conserve conservative conservation
concert consortium consternation consequence consequently conquest
convert converted converse conversation* confront to distinguish from affront *Although there is no vowel before, these 4 use the left (anticlockwise) version of the hooked stroke VR to allow easier derivatives, but 'confront' and 'afront' follow the normal rule.
A longhand com or con may be pronounced 'cum' or 'cun', but this cannot be indicated in the outline:
comfort comfortable compass company constable but compassion companion constabulary are pronounced with short O Top of page
(b) Proximity (=nearness, juxtaposition) Medial con/com is shown by writing the strokes before and after it close together, instead of using a dot. This is exactly the same as disjoining, but for a different reason:
 Proximity: writing the parts near to each other in order to signify con/com/cum/cog. The second part of the outline is generally level

with or slightly tucked under the first part. With some stroke combinations (chiefly after Pee Bee Tee Dee) it may be possible to also indicate the vowel of the second part by writing that in position as well, but not at the expense of keeping the two close together. Disjoining: writing the parts of an outline near to each other because (a) they cannot be joined satisfactorily, or (b) detaching a portion of the outline to signify another suffix, e.g. '-mental' '-ality' '-lessness'. Its name reflects the fact that the parts would be joined if they could, or were joined to start with.
When using proximity, the outlines take their position from the first vowel of the word, as normal. In the following, the initial prefix is the first up or downstroke, so that is the one that takes its rightful position in regard to the line. The second half of the outline can also be in position according to its vowel, but only if a convenient outline results:
decompose decompression decontaminate discontinue discomfort
disconnect disconcerting ill-concealed ill-conceived ill-considered malcontent
overconfident overcompensate preconceive preconception precondition
recompense recommend recommendation reconcile reconnoitre recondite
recombine recondition reconsider reconstruct recommit reconnect recommence
subconscious subcommittee subcontract subcontinent
well-conducted well-constructed well-connected well-concealed Top of page
In the following, the initial prefix is a horizontal stroke. The first up or downstroke comes somewhere after the con-, so that is the stroke that is written in position in regard to the line. The position of the whole outline is still decided by the first vowel sound of the word, not the vowel that follows that particular up or downstroke (see asterisked examples below):
incompetent incomplete incomparable incompatible incombustible
inconspicuous incontinent inconsistent inconclusive incongruous incongruously
incommunicable* inconsequential* inconceivable encompass *With these two, the first up or downstroke is the very last one, but the outline is still placed according to the first vowel.
excommunicate uncompromising uncomplaining uncompleted uncomplicated
uncommitted unconditionally unconnected unconscious uncommon unconcerned
misconceive misconstrue misconduct semi-conductor semi-conscious semi-complete
non-committal non-compliance non-combatant non-conductor
non-content non-consent non-conformist* *Optional contraction Top of page
These contractions omit the con:
contentment* inconsiderate inconvenient/inconveniently/inconvenience constitutional constitutional/constitutionally** *The N is also omitted **Optional contraction
Proximity within a phrase can replace an initial con dot if the outline can be written close to the one preceding. Unlike the 'medial con' words listed above, the con- word in such phrases must retain its correct position in regard to the ruled line. The words should form a natural phrase, otherwise legibility will be reduced:
I am confident, they will consume, your complaint, sign the contract
their control, full container, unfair comparison, very comfortable
we shall consider, we shall commence, we shall continue In some advanced phrases, the con can be omitted altogether and the remainder of the outline joined, providing the phrase is a common/obvious one:
we have concluded, satisfactory* conclusion, I am concerned, for your consideration *Contraction Top of page
Proximity is useful in these words for the word 'come':
income tax, becoming welcoming incoming oncoming overcoming homecoming
The originals use short forms: come coming income become welcome overcome
locum-tenens but locum locomotion locomotive*
*Optional contraction
Proximity is not appropriate after punctuation marks, vowel-sign short forms (a, the, why, how, beyond, you, with, when, what, would) or single downward dashes (of, all, to, too, on, owe/ought, but) but is sufficiently clear after upward dashes (and, should, upward tick the):
and contain, should continue, on the company, on the condition The idea is that the short forms are not mistaken for vocalisation of the following outline. Sometimes the con- word cannot be placed clearly in the combination and is better written with the con dot:
Clear combination: should commend, and command, on the committee, beyond the control
Needs dot: should command, and commend, on the connection, beyond control, would complete When a vowel-sign short forms is part of a phrase, then proximity can be used because the con- word is being written near a stroke rather than just a floating dot or dash:
for the conditions, in the committee, for all consumers, if you would consider Compare:
The conditions ... The committee ... All consumers would consider If you decide to leave a larger-than-usual space between outlines in order to signify your future punctuation in the transcript, then clearly proximity is not possible. It would not be appropriate anyway because it should only be used for words that run on easily (as per normal phrasing rules) and not where there is a natural gap or pause. As shorthand speed is helped by having reasonably compact notes rather than sprawling ones, it is important that only the clearest proximity phrases are used. When in doubt, retain the dot for the con- word rather than risk a hesitation or unclear notes. Top of page
(c) Cum and cog are only abbreviated when medial:
circumference circumvent circumnavigate circumcise circumcision
circumspect circumscribe decumbent encumber encumbrance incumbent
recognise recognition unrecognisable recumbence superincumbent
precognition incognito
These contractions omit the whole prefix: circumstance circumstantial Cum and cog at the beginning of a word are always shown with full strokes, therefore it is irrelevant whether they are grammatically a prefix or not:
cumbent cumber cumbersome Cumbrian
cummerbund cumquat cummin/cumin Cummings comings *
cumulus cumulative cognize
cognate cognition cognitive cognomen
*Short form
The following words may occasionally be encountered with silent G. The shorthand dictionary (1974) prefers the silent G versions, but in modern dictionaries they have the hard G sound: Pronounced CON:
cognoscible cognizant incognizant Suggested outlines for when pronounced COG - just add in a stroke G:
cognoscible cognizant incognizant* *Avoiding proximity, in order to keep the set of words alike
Whichever outline is used, the spelling in your transcript will be the same. Alternatives are given here because the shorthand dictionary does not reflect current pronunciation.
These follow Italian/French pronunciation: cognoscente cognac Top of page
(d) 'Concom-' Write the first syllable in full and use proximity to represent the second one:
concomitant concomitance also co-conspirator (e) Some con- and com- words are clearer written in full, even though it is a grammatical prefix:
commissar commissary commissariat commiserate
commissioner subcommissioner commissionaire commove
commotion commission decommission non-commissioned
commorancy connascent connate connatural
connoisseur consul consular consulate
reconnaissance connumeration to distinguish from numeration
commerce commercial/commercially*
connote connotation to distinguish from commutation Top of page
(f) Where the con- or com- is not a prefix write it in full:
comb coma comma Como comose
comely incomer* newcomer comeback** *Using short form 'in' hence the N is unvocalised
**Using short form 'come'
comedown comedian comedy comic comical
comfrey comet comate/co-mate comity* *=courtesy/civility, with accent on first syllable, not to be confused with 'committee'
comp* Compton con conned conning-tower *Popular abbreviation for various words beginning thus
cone coney condor conic conical
conoid coniform conifer conine
conch/conk conchate Congo Congolese
conation conative conatus Connie Connaught
Congleton conger/conker/conquer conqueror unconquerable
Connecticut Connor/Conner Connell Conrad Conway Top of page
2. ACCOMUse Kay joined or disjoined:
 The prefix is deemed to include the O vowel after the M in 
accommodate etc. The prefix is joined only for 'accommodation' and 'accomplish' as those outlines are distinctive enough not to be mistaken for other words.
accommodate accommodative accommodator accommodated unaccommodating accommodation
accompany unaccompanied accomplice accomplish unaccomplished
accumbent accumbency Not a prefix: accumulate acumen Top of page
3. MAGNA- MAGNE- MAGNIA disjoined M represents these syllables, with a short a/e/i vowel. Both vowels of the prefix are deemed to be included in the M and are therefore not written:
magnify magnification magnifical magnificat magnificent
magnanimous magnanimity magniloquence magnalium
Magna Carta magnitude magnetite magnetise magnetiser
magnetisation magnetometer magnetometric magneton magnetron
magnetic/magnetically/magnetism (Contraction) magnetics* magnetisms* *Suggested outlines for the plurals. As they are both nouns, adding Circle S to the short form would be ambiguous.
magnet If the prefix were used, this would involve a penlift, resulting in a slower outline for this short word. Top of page
'Magnetism' etc in compound words: the contraction should not be joined, as that would not be clear. If the Em can be joined to the stroke before it, then use it for the 'magne-' prefix. If it cannot be joined, then a disjoined contraction would be sufficiently clear:
demagnetise unmagnetised remagnetised diamagnetic diamagnetism
hydromagnetism* antimagnetic* aeromagnetism*
electromagnetic thermomagnetism* geomagnetism* *Suggested outlines, not in dictionary. Writing in full as shown is preferable to using the contraction, in order to avoid ambiguities about the endings, see asterisked note on 'magnetics' above.
ferromagnetism ferrimagnetism nonmagnetic These cannot join the Em, therefore the contraction is used. If the magn- ends with any vowel other than the short ones shown above, it is written using full strokes, and these are not prefixes anyway:
magnum magnate magnolia
magnesium magnesian magnesia magnesic An exception to the above rule is 'magneto'. The length of the E varies between the derivatives and it makes sense to keep the whole set the same as the other 'magnet' words above:
magneto magneto-electric magneto-electricity magnetopause magnetosphere magnetostatic
Note: static electric* electricity* *Contractions The prefixes magna- etc are derived from Latin magnus = great. The 'magnet' words are derived from Magnesia, a region in Greece where magnetic rocks were first discovered in ancient history. Top of page
4. IN- UN(a) Stroke N according to normal rules:
inspire inseparable inbuilt intake intractable
insist indecent injustice ingress infuse infringe
invent inverse invalid inimitable insure inquire
inestimable inexpensive* inequality** unopposed untie unattached *Using contraction **Using short form 'equal' therefore that part is on the line
untrue undo* undecided unclean unguarded unhook *Does not use short form 'do'
unhygienic unholy unhealthy unloved
unethical unlocked unlikely unoccupied unrealistic * unearned
*Note the I dot goes at the end of the stee loop and not squeezed in below where the Kay starts.
unsuccessful unfaithful uninspiring unimportant unimproved * *Short form is not used for this word, as it would be too similar to 'unimportant'
influenced uninfluenced* uninfluential (Contraction) *This is shown incorrectly in the 1974 dictionary written on the line, but correct, as here, in the 1950's dictionary.
These use halving: intend intent intention intense integral integrate
intellect intoxicate intangible integument Top of page
(b) Use small initial hook before the strokes STR SKR and upward Hay, where the in- is not a negative:
instruct instructor instruction* instrument inscribe/inscribed* inscription* inscriber inscroll *Contractions
inhale inhaler inhalant inherent inherit inheritance inheritor
inhabit inhabitant inhibit inhibition If it is a negative, the small hook is not distinctive enough when written at speed, considering the word has the opposite meaning, so full stroke N is used to keep it very clear which is meant:
inscrutable inhospitable The small hook is not used for any of the following: (a) Not before downward Hay:
inhume inhuman inhumane inhumanity (b) Not for un- en-:
unscrew unscrewed unscrupulous unscripted *
unscriptural** unscramble unscratched unscrutinized **This also has an optional contraction
unstrung sunstroke sunscreen* unscreened* on-screen*
enscroll* enhance enhearten *All these are suggested outlines, not in dictionary (c) Not used medially for unin- or disin-:
uninhabited uninhabitable uninhibited
uninstructed uninherited* disinherited* *Suggested outlines, not in dictionary
(d) Not used with ST or SK:
install instil instant inscape insculp
Top of page
5. IMM- INN- UNN- ILL- IRRMost such words come in pairs with related or opposite meanings, and the initial vowel is the only difference between their shapes, although they may occupy different positions in relation to the line. As the outlines need to remain unvocalised for speed purposes and their position may not always be clearly written, repeating or changing the stroke is the most reliable way to ensure the difference is always obvious. This is not done to reflect the longhand spelling or to suggest that the consonant is sounded twice, but merely to produce a distinctive pair: (a) imm- inn- unn- Repeat the stroke:
immaterial immature immaturity immeasurable
immedicable immitigable immethodical immaculate* *Pair: 'maculate' = to spot
immemorable immemorial immensurable
immingle immiscible immigrate compare emigrate
immodest immobile immerge compare emerge
immoderate immortal immoral immorality
immutable immix immission
innumerable innavigable innocuous to distinguish from noxious which is very similar
innutritious innominate innervate compare enervate
unnecessary unneeded unnoticed unnatural
unknown unknowing unnegotiable unnerving Top of page
(b) ill- Change to downward Ell:
limited illimited limitable illimitable If that is not possible, repeat the stroke:
illegal illegible illegitimate illicit
illiterate illogical illiberal See Theory 14 L Forms/Negatives for fuller explanation and many more examples. Not paired: words that are not part of a pair do not need the stroke repeated or changed:
immense immensely immerse immersion
immune immunity imminent immolate immure
inn inner innards innocent innovate innuendo
illusion illusory illustration illustrious
ill illness ill-favoured ill-judged ill-informed * ill-mannered
*Using contraction
Exceptions: although not paired, repeating the stroke is clearer for these:
immediate* immediately* immediacy innate uninnate
unnumbered Only one stroke N, as the 'num-' part is represented by the short form. Top of page
(c) irr- Change Ray to Ar, as you would normally do when a vowel precedes the R sound:
relevant irrelevant If that is not possible or convenient, add an Ar before the Ray. Note that the first vowel is written before the Ar, and the following vowel is written after the Ray:
radiate irradiate If the outline already uses Ar, then add another Ar to the beginning. Again, the vowel signs sit outside the two Ar strokes:
remediable irremediable The following outlines look similar, using both Ar and Ray:
air-raid air-rifle arrowroot orrery arrearage (arrears) See R Forms page/Prefix Irr for fuller explanation and many more examples. Top of page
6. INTER- INTRO(a) Inter always uses doubled Em and can be vocalised, as per normal doubling rules:
interpret interplay interfere interferometer
interpolate interview intervene interval
interchangeable interweave intertwine compare intwine entwine
intercept intersect intercede intercessor
interlace interlock interlink interlingual
interlining interlunar interlinear Note: lunar linear
international interzonal interbreed intersperse
intercity interact interdependence interrelationship
These do not repeat the R in the next syllable: interregnum interrogate interrupt Disjoin a following M (lack of angle between strokes of different lengths) or upward L (to avoid an awkward join):
intermittent intermarry intermix
intermediate intermediary intermingle
intermural intermezzo
interleave interloper interlude
intercommunicate intercom Note: interim has separate strokes, as the central vowel is somewhat slurred, and the alternative would be disjoining.
Note: interior inter* internal intern internee interminable interest**
* = bury, accent on 2nd syllable
Top of page
(b) Intro uses either doubling or full strokes, whichever is convenient to join:
 Doubled N with no dot I vocalisation. This is an exceptional use of 
doubling because there is no vowel between the T and R. It therefore counts as a special unvocalised prefix, like magna-. Stroke N + TR with both vowels, where necessary to obtain a good join.
introvert introversion introit introrse
introspection introduce introductory introduction * *Contraction Note these pairs:
intermit intromit intermission intromission
intercession introcession
interjection introject introjection
*Lack of the dot vowel sign is the only difference with these 2 pairs. As vowels are normally omitted, more distinction is needed. A non-theory suggestion would be to add the dash vowel sign for long 'O' before the Jay for the intro- words (thus keeping the dictionary outlines) or using N + TR instead of doubled N (resulting in a non-dictionary outline). The latter may be faster as there are no pen lifts to slow down.
Using doubling for both inter and intro relies on the fact that, apart from the two pairs above, they are mutually exclusive, thus avoiding clashes. As new words arise with these prefixes, consistently using N + TR for 'intro-' would be the most reliable way of ensuring that clashes never occur – this is not quite so fast as a doubled stroke, but reliability is more important. Intra always uses N + TR:
intramural intravenous intramuscular Top of page
7. SELF-
(a) Self used as a prefix is shown by a circle in 2nd place against the stroke:
 Write the circle first, then the strokes of the outline, so that you are   
writing in the same order as the syllables are spoken, and to avoid any backward movement of the pen. With normal words, the outline is written in 2nd position, to accord with the vowel in 'self', but short forms and contractions retain their original position. The self circle is never omitted. Not used medially or finally for the word 'self'.
self-defence self-evident self-reliant self-esteem self-imposed self-seeker
self-service self-determination self-explanatory self-help self-same Do not be tempted write the outline in 1st or 3rd position just because of the vowel in the main part of the outline:
self-righteous self-accusation self-satisfied self-sacrifice self-taught selfpropelled
self-pity self-discipline self-willed self-hood self-invited Keep a short form or contraction in its rightful position. Most contractions are in 2nd position anyway:
self-important/importance self-neglect self-improvement self-build selfschooled
self-instruction self-satisfaction self-subjection self-respect self-valuation
self-sufficient self-interest self-governing self-advertisement In a fully vocalised outline, if the 2nd place on the stroke is occupied by a vowel sign, then place the circle just outside the vowel sign. Most of the time you will not be vocalising outlines and can place the circle right next to the stroke:
self-opinionated self-employed self-sown If you have already completed the outline, and then decide you need to go back and insert the 2nd place vowel, placing it outside the self circle will still be readable, even though it is not the perfect textbook version. Top of page
(b) Self-con Write circle at the head of the stroke, to replace the con dot. The outline remains in 2nd position, as 'self' still provides the first vowel of the word:
self-control self-contained self-condemnation self-confident self-conscious self-congratulation self-complacent (c) When the 'self' is not a prefix, or is alone or in the middle or end of a continuous outline, it should be written in full; some are short forms:
self selves hers herself one's/once oneself *
*Contraction, as it omits the N
selfish/selfishness* unselfish/unselfishness* unselfconscious selfless do-ityourselfer *Contractions
non-self non-self-governing non-self-regarding – hyphenated outlines allow the second part to also be written in its own position, and to use the self-circle.
our ours ourself ourselves, your yours yourself yourselves
myself thyself itself himself themselves hisself * theirself* theirselves* *Met with in vernacular or lax speech only but grammatically incorrect in academic terms – a desire to make them match the possessive in my/her/yourself etc, coupled with easier pronunciation. See for a discussion of this usage. Correction of the speaker's word-formation may not be appropriate in some circumstances.
The Circle S at the end of some of the short forms above is only expressing the S sound, and is not being used as a joined 'self circle'. An outline using the self circle prefix should not be phrased with the word before it. Going back to insert a circle would cause more delay and interruption to smooth flow of writing than is gained by phrasing. The circle is not used to represent the lone word 'self' in phrases. The self circle cannot clash with intervening dot vowels against hooked strokes, as all of these are in first position. The rules are that a second place intervening dot vowel is never shown:
self-praise person perspex parallel paragraph palpable If you need to emphasise just the word 'self' then write it in full so that you can put a wavy line under it:
He said self service, not health service! Top of page
8. TRANS(a) Written in full:
transaction transatlantic transatlantic* transcend transceiver transducer *Optional contraction
transferee transfuse transfix transfiguration transistor
transit transient translucent transition transform transform/transformed * *Optional contraction
(b) The N is omitted before certain strokes to achieve briefer outlines. As the N is lightly sounded, it can be omitted and the outlines remain readable: Before P and M:
transpose transpire transport transparent transplant transpacific
transmit transmitter transmission transmute transmogrify transoceanic
transhume transmigration also transnational but transept transom
To allow hooks: transfer transference transgress but transverse to distinguish from 'transfers'
Stroke N and R hook both omitted in these: transcribe transcript transcription Before Ell:
translate translation translator retranslate transliterate transalpine Top of page
9. ANTI- ANTEThese are pronounced the same.
 anti = against, opposite  ante = before (a) Generally halved N:
antibiotic antibody anti-aircraft Antichrist anticlimax
anti-clockwise antedate antidote antigen antitoxin antipathy
antenatal antipodes antechamber anteroom antediluvian Use full strokes to enable joins, or to obtain clearer outlines:
ante meridiem* antemeridian antimundane *Latin = before midday = a.m.; post meridiem = after midday = p.m.
antecedent antecessor anticipate anticyclone antihistamine
antisocial antirrhinum antithesis anti-semitic antimacassar
Not prefixes: antique antiquated antelope antenna anteater antimony Top of page
10. SUPER- SUPRAThe older pronunciation is the diphthong 'syoo', but the plain vowel 'soo' seems to be more prevalent. I am keeping to the latter in these pages as being the more up-to-date and quicker to write, although you are unlikely to need to insert that vowel sign:
super super
superabundance superannuate superannuation supernatural supernumerary
supercharger supercilious superficial superfluous superman superhuman
superimpose superlative supermarket supernova supersede
supersonic superstition superstitious superstructure supervene
supervise supervisor super-cooled super-tanker super-duper Supra Always insert the second vowel:
supranational supralunar supramundane supra-orbital
Note these not prefixes: superb superior supernal Top of page
11. DISStroke as normal:
disappear dispute display disprove disapprove distant district
disjoin discover discovery discoverer discount disclose disguise
disqualify disfigure dismay disintegrate dishonour disallow dislike
discourse disagree disgrace disgruntled discriminate discreet/discrete * *discreet = prudent, cautious; discrete = separate
disinterested disrespect disorganise/disorganised disorganisation displeasure disproportion With 'diss-', as only one S is pronounced, only one S needs to be shown in the outline.
dissatisfied dissection disseminate dissent dissident dissolve
dissipate dissuade dissever dissemble dissociate dissociation disassociate ** *A less common version of dissociate
The following 3 outlines (and their derivatives) use the Ses circle for the two S's purely to provide distinguishing outlines (see Distinguishing Outlines List 2/disseize & disserve):
disseize disserve disservice Top of page
12. MISStroke as normal, but disjoined if necessary:
misprint mistrust mistreat misdeed mistake* misquote
miscreant misuse mis-shapen misread* mislead mishear with 'reed'
misplace miscalculate misfit misfire
*omits the T
*past tense, rhyming
Disjoining also signifies a medial 'con', but no clashes occur. If a clash arose, a non-theory suggestion would be to either insert the con dot, or make the 'mis-' disjoin by using the shorthand hyphen sign, so that any suggestion of 'con' is excluded.)
misconceive misconception miscompute misconduct misconjecture misconstrue
Contractions: misinform/misinformed misinformation misfortune For 'miss-' (i.e. prefix mis + s) the Circle Ses is used to improve readability, and does not suggest that the two S's are pronounced separately. In such words the S sound is immediately followed by a consonant, and without the double S (both longhand and shorthand), one would tend to read the second part as beginning with that consonant e.g. mis+pend instead of mis+spend. This is the same reason why the longhand hyphen is there, to make it easier to read:
mis-spell mis-spend/mis-spent mis-state mis-stated mis-statement mis-cite The above does not apply to other miss- words that are not prefixes, such as 'missing, mission.' Note that diss- words do not need to use the large circle as above, because the prefix is always followed by a vowel. Top of page
13. FOR- FORE-
 For- means away, off, out, extremely, wrongly, and gives a negative or prohibitive meaning.
 Fore- means before, in front of, preceding, and refers to position in place, time or rank.
 The outlines use different vowels for these two prefixes, with the

advantage of providing additional distinction for these sets of outlines. Modern dictionaries seem not to differentiate the pronunciations of these 2 prefixes. Knowing the meanings of the prefixes is a great help in getting the spellings correct, although some of the words below may be encountered with variant spellings e.g. forfend is sometimes met with as 'forefend'. If you know what the words mean, keeping to the correct prefix for each meaning should keep your spelling of them on track and avoid the confusing variants that sometimes find their way into print.
(a) For- always uses a hooked FR, which may be reversed to make a good join. The vowel is a first place light dash:
forbid forbear forfend forsake forsooth
forward* forswear forspent forgive forget
*Unlike the others, this one does mean
'fore/in front'
These two have full strokes, to attain more flowing outlines:
forlorn* forfeit** *More flowing outline than if the hooked FR were used forfend
**Possibly avoiding similarity to
(b) Fore- mostly uses full strokes Eff plus Ar or Ray; occasionally the hooked stroke FR to gain a good join. Never uses the reversed FR. The vowel is a 2nd place heavy dash:
fore foremost foreman forewoman
foreleg foreordain forefront forecourt foreground
foreshore forecast forearm pinafore aforementioned
aforesaid forehand* aforehand* aforetime aforethought to distinguish
forebear forebode forefather forefinger
foreknow foreknown forename foreshadow
*These use Ar and Ray
foreclose foredate Note also: forehead pronounced 'forrid' Hooked FR for good join:
forestall foretell foresheet foreshorten
forewind forewarn forewarned before beforehand*
*Optional alternative
Top of page
Some for/fore pairs:
forgo (=do without/give up) forego (= precede/go before) foregone conclusion, forwent forewent
forjudge forejudge
'forjudge' = deprive by a judgement, expel from court, a legal term; 'forejudge' = prejudge, judge beforehand. If you need to differentiate, then it is worthwhile learning both outlines. The version 'forejudge' is probably the one most likely to be met in normal non-legal speech.
forgather foregather – both mean 'come together, assemble.' The shorthand dictionary provides outlines for both versions, but the first version is the one that matches the derivation and meaning. Presumably the two ways of writing of 'gather' provide additional differentiation. Most of the 'for-' words have the accent on the second syllable, so the hooked form is more appropriate. With 'fore-' most are accented on the first syllable, making full strokes more appropriate. This helps to show where the accent lies, and so improves legibility, as well as providing additional distinction between the above pairs. Top of page
14. NONWritten as per normal theory – N + N Hook when it can be joined (but occasionally disjoined), otherwise strokes N + N:
non-acceptance non-cumulative non-existence non-existent
non-residence non-resident non-resistance non-linear
non-appearance* non-payment nonplussed non-feasance *Note how the first vowel of 'appearance' is written to the N stroke, similarly with other outlines below
non-specific non-stop non-starter non-binding
non-attendance nondescript non-addictive non-effective
nonchalance non-essential non-sequitur
nonsense nonentity non-intervention
non-smoker non-working non-alcoholic
non-observance* non-obedience *Disjoined, rather than N + N as in 'nonobedience', possibly to avoid an overlong outline.
Short forms or contractions remain in their correct position:
non-performance non-delivery non-production non-productive
efficient/efficientlyefficiency non-efficient/ly/cy* inefficient/ly/cy An affix is a grammatical addition, attached to one end of a word, in order to expand or change its meaning:
 At the beginning it is called a prefix.  At the end it is called suffix. The suffixes on this page are written within the basic rules:
 All the consonants and vowels of the suffix are written in the outline.  The suffix is only disjoined when a join is not possible.  These suffixes are vocalised as normal, even if disjoined. SUFFIXES 1. -ing -ings -ingly
Stroke Ing where possible, and always medially. Otherwise dot at end of stroke for -ing, dash for -ings, finally only. -ingly disjoined if necessary.
2. -ly
Stroke Ell or L Hook or just add dot vowel.
3. -able -ably
Hooked BL. Strokes Bee + Ell where the hooked BL cannot join.
4. -est -ist
Stee Loop. Occasionally halved Ess, down or upwards.
5. -ess
Stroke Ess, to denote female version of a noun, where required for differentiation. Otherwise use Circle S. Stroke Ess preferred in some names.
6. -ism
Circle S + Em. -nism has the Circle inside the En curve. Occasionally Zee + Em.
7. -less
Only disjoined where necessary. Not vocalised if disjoined.
8. -ness
Add the whole syllable even if the original word already ends in N. '-lessness' is a contracted suffix, see Theory 20 page.
-1. -ing -ings -ingly
 The default is stroke Ing, used where it can be written clearly. It only 

represents the sound of NG and so it needs the vowel sign when vocalising the outline. Add Circle S as normal. The second method is a dot at the end point of the stroke, used where stroke Ing would be unclear, awkward or impossible to write. A dash, written at right angles to the end of the stroke, is used for the plural 'ings'. It is written with a forwards (not backwards) movement wherever possible. Vertical dashes are written downwards. The dot and dash represent the whole syllable (like the Con Dot does) so they are deemed to include the I vowel. This means that a vowel that comes immediately before the '-ing' is shown plain as normal, and does not become a diphone or triphone. Stroke Ing is preferable to dot Ing. As the dot involves a pen lift and careful positioning, it is slightly slower than using the stroke.
Stroke Ing is used where it makes a good join – generally after full-length thick strokes or making a good angle:
buying rubbing assembling adding dying considering
reading raging changing managing aching keying
making seeking liking drinking
cutting scattering concreting concluding hiking
sagging struggling staffing flying floating flattering
earthing frothing saying seeing icing assessing
easing showing ushering earning concerning discerning
cashing dashing rushing aiming mowing swimming
framing hammering knowing noting honouring
sunning sauntering ending sending needing
laying relying selling letting lettering
feeling ruling sorting breathing waiting heating yachting
penning painting pondering complaining combining binding
training tending tendering dining chaining chanting joining
engendering canning counting countering craning
reclining grinning grounding fanning finding
refunding convening inventing preventing
thinning meaning minding meandering
testing contrasting dusting suggesting everlasting registering
captioning petitioning partitioning conditioning auditioning
auctioning sectioning vacationing motioning Add Circle S:
paintings readings findings lettings endings meanings Top of page
Dot Ing is used: (a) after Pee Tee Chay and downward Hay, to avoid changing from thin to thick without a clear angle. Dot Ing is deemed to include the I vowel of the suffix:
paying stopping supplying splitting spraying plotting completing
sweeping sleeping repeating hoping shopping shipping
mapping napping/knapping dropping equipping developing
eating tying* treating uttering tutoring staying* stowing* stating *Only the plain vowel sign is needed, and not a diphone.
batting blotting bottling pottering getting jetting
existing insisting hesitating frustrating fretting reinstating
itching chewing*see note above chatting stitching patching pitching despatching fetching
attaching stretching catching clutching sketching scratching matching
leaching unlatching watching searching twitching hieing * hoeing* hewing* *see note above
In compound words where the outlines are joined together, dot Ing is never used medially and is replaced by stroke Ing:
watering watering-place watering-pot dripping dripping-pan
sleeping sleeping-sickness grappling grappling-iron
eating eating-house whipping whipping-cream whipping-post If the compound word is written with two outlines, then the dot can remain, as it is still at the end of its own part of the outline:
potting-shed sleeping-draught staying-power battering-ram If there is a Circle S before the -ing, then Pee Tee and Chay can use stroke Ing, as the circle does the same job as a sharp angle, providing a clear transition between the two strokes:
posing placing teasing choosing purchasing traipsing compare tripping Top of page
(b) Dot Ing is used after Ar and reversed FR VR FL VL, to avoid an insufficient angle and a change of curve direction within the outline:
airing pouring/poring* tiring storing wearing hearing freeing** fretting *you pour a drink, you pore over a book
**No diphone, see asterisked note above
covering hovering grovelling riffling ravelling (c) Halving a stroke means that it can no longer take the stroke Ing and so has to use the dot instead, in order to avoid joining strokes of unequal lengths without a sharp angle:
buying bedding braying breeding blowing bleeding
aiding doubting drying dreading jawing jading feeling fielding
mooing meeting madding motoring roaming remitting
perming permitting promoting prompting plumbing plummeting (d) Dot Ing is used where stroke Ing cannot be written well or at all: – After Stee and Ster loops:
posting boasting costing gusting fasting investing frosting
thirsting assisting listing misting resting wasting hosting
plastering blistering clustering sequestering fostering flustering
mastering administering westering rostering bolstering upholstering
– After some instances of N Hook, V Hook or Shun where Ing is not easy or possible to join:
raining surrendering reserving learning turning rafting winning wanting
wandering weaving yawning yearning leaning landing laundering
shining shunning shunting enshrining freshening harshening
caving craving archiving crafting grieving engraving grafting
cautioning occasioning apportioning rationing stationing
fashioning envisioning functioning malfunctioning sanctioning
positioning propositioning requisitioning – After straight strokes with the NS circle:
pouncing prancing dispensing recompensing bouncing bronzing tensing entrancing
distancing instancing dancing condensing chancing glancing ensconcing sequencing
referencing conferencing experiencing rinsing wincing enhancing – After LD and Ard:
balding scalding scolding gilding folding scaffolding
yielding heralding moulding upholding beholding withholding
hoarding herding warding birding boarding fording affording
cording/chording carding discarding stewarding retarding Dot Ing is not used if the 'ing' is not a suffix:
ping spring ting string compare shopping spraying teeing straying In names, stroke Ing is often used in preference to Dot Ing, as long as a minimal angle can be achieved:
Kettering Hutchings Harding Tooting Tring Ching
Compare catering etchings herding tooting uttering itching
But the following use the dot/dash:
Epping Wapping Yalding Spalding Fielding Hastings Top of page
Dash Ings is used for the plural of those outlines that already use Dot Ing:
plottings trappings cravings itchings leanings landings rantings
windings postings blusterings listings hustings meetings mutterings This cannot clash with an intervening third place vowel, which is struck through the end of the stroke:
whirlpool compare ripplings couplings samplings The original outline is generally not altered to accommodate one or other of the 'ing' suffixes, it will just use whichever suffix method is best suited:
cleansing cleaning summonsing summoning 'cleansing' 'summonsing' and similar words do not expand the hook into a stroke En to permit joining a stroke Ing, but they retain their form and use
the dot. This is because there is a choice of methods, unlike when forming other derivatives and attachments e.g. glancingly. An outline may change to permit the joining of -ingly (as well as some of the other prefixes) because there is no choice of method to represent that particular suffix, see below. The following outlines change the direction of Ell in order to achieve similar motion of the curves, under the rules for using stroke Ell (similar motion and vowel indication) and not because of the 'ing' suffix:
lose/loose* losing/loosing, lease leasing, ail ailing but oil oiling to retain the joined diphthong *lose (Z sound) = to suffer loss or defeat; loose (S zound) = untighten, slack
The following use proximity, under the 'con/com' rules, as a quick way of representing the word 'come' and produces a more distinctive outline than if Dot Ing were used:
becoming welcoming incoming overcoming Top of page
-ing after short forms and contractions (a) Short forms mostly follow the above rules, and only the stroke Ing is vocalised:
speaking spiriting peopling surprising balancing trading wording
chairing cheering having pleasuring wishing schooling
calling equalling caring going* guarding *See asterisked note below
nearing influencing owning handing Short forms do not use stroke Ing where the outline does not contain the consonants that immediately precede the 'ing' sound, even though stroke Ing might join well. The examples below fall into this category, and they take Dot Ing instead. The purpose is to preserve the readability of the outline and avoid ambiguity – if stroke Ing were used in these cases, one might try to read the Ing immediately after the consonant stroke before it, which would lead to errors in reading back e.g. 'aching' instead of 'coming, and nonsense words like 'misging' 'inscring' 'thang':
coming comings giving misgivings inscribing thanking thinking
subjecting remembering* numbering* doctoring delivering remarking *These two use the dot for clarity, rather than absence of preceding consonants in the outline.
Note especially the pair: going* giving *As the short form 'go' is deemed to include the O vowel, only the I dot is needed against the stroke Ing, when vocalising
With the outlines for 'pleasuring' and 'influencing', the consonants written are those immediately before the ing, therefore adding stroke Ing presents no problems. The opposite is the case with 'giving' where the V is not shown
in the outline, and if you just added a stroke Ing, you might read it as some other word or think that you have written 'going' out of position. These short forms already represent the 'ing' syllable:
building according during owing (b) Contractions mostly use Dot Ing, for the same reason as with short forms above, i.e. to keep them looking like contractions (the following is not a complete list):
acknowledging advertising amalgamating arbitrating cross-examining discharging
informing interesting organising publishing representing Stroke Ing is only used where the contraction ends in its own stroke Ing or a Circle S:
distinguishing extinguishing relinquishing
familiarising characterising, notwithstanding already includes the 'ing' syllable. Top of page
-ingly This is always represented by strokes Ing + Ell, as Dot Ing is never used medially:
longingly strikingly fleetingly knowing showingly
feelingly ponderingly sorrowingly lovingly troublingly The original outline may change to avoid having to disjoin the suffix (this is different from the above rule where outlines do not change to accommodate an '-ing' suffix):
sparing sparingly staring staringly boring boringly
boasting boastingly glancing glancingly
wondering wonderingly lasting lastingly* according** but accordingly **Short form *This particular joining of Ing is tolerated, as it is better than a disjoin
Disjoined in other outlines that use Dot Ing:
hesitatingly frustratingly frettingly splutteringly
grovellingly doubtingly fetchingly but note unerringly Top of page
2. -ly Up or downward Ell, as per normal Ell rules (see Theory 14 L forms page):
happily rapidly badly truly sadly loudly richly
hugely strangely likely keenly secondly consequently
goodly grandly stubbornly roundly safely lovely
earthly monthly seemly madly promptly
fairly freely slowly lately politely wetly hotly
icily easily visually rarely thoroughly
only commonly nearly nicely honestly nightly soundly
immensely falsely strongly completely fitly vividly chiefly Top of page
An N Hook may change to stroke En to enable the Ell to be joined:
open openly plain plainly prince princely
tense tensely dense densely sudden suddenly
man manly woman womanly attentively
human humanly* humane humanely* *need the second vowel inserting, as both outlines now occupy 3rd position
Disjoin if necessary, using upward Ell. When disjoined, the Ell represents the whole suffix including the vowel, so no dot vowel is necessary:
finely evenly vainly heavenly* slovenly*
*Distinguishing pair
sternly tenderly compliantly flippantly blindly
competently constantly instantly distantly confidently prudently
obediently persistently reluctantly vehemently
faintly fondly friendly fervently
jointly urgently diligently negligently
But gentle gently genteel genteelly Use L Hook where convenient:
deeply cheaply meekly biweekly (weekly)
blankly frankly thickly bleakly
briefly bravely impressively positively creatively roughly gruffly
But darkly briskly quickly likely sleekly If there is already an L Hooked stroke, just add the vowel sign:
ably possibly tickly incredibly enjoyably irritably unavoidably
locally politically critically medically nominally originally
hopefully pitifully powerfully fearfully beautifully delightfully doubtfully
Where the root word already ends in a stroke Ell, there are several ways of representing -ly: changing to upward Ell, or just adding the dot vowel, and a few outlines add an additional upward Ell – see L Forms/3. Vowel Indication/ (b) Finally for further explanation and examples. Contractions with '-ly' Most contractions have the '-ly included in the set of words that the basic outline represents, although a disjoined unvocalised Ell could be added as well if it was felt necessary for clarity:
Already included: especial/especially financial/financially efficient/efficiently/efficiency Be aware that some speakers omit the '-ly' in more lax speech e.g. 'He worked very efficient.' If it is not appropriate to correct the grammar, you should use the wavy underline as a reminder for when you are transcribing. Add stroke Ell to these contractions:
regularly* irregularly* peculiarly* arbitrarily characteristically *The dictionary gives no dot vowel after the Ell for these three, but all others take the dot.
immediately objectively, identically just adds the dot, defective but defectively in full A disjoined Ell written to any contraction or short form would be perfectly readable, to prevent hesitation when writing at speed, with the intention of consulting the dictionary or textbook later on. Contractions are dealt with full in the Contractions section. Top of page
3. -able -ably Generally hooked BL. An Ar may change to Ray to reflect the vowel that comes after, as well as to prevent the outline descending too far. Add the dot vowel for '-ably':
adore adorable adorably bearable admirable operable
tolerable acceptable inimitable recyclable* despicable dictionary.
flammable manageable changeable honourable reliable
disagreeable valuable voluble amiable measurable
*suggested outline, not in
presentable preventable negotiable appreciable pitiable
insatiable unsociable justifiable certifiable identifiable
unconscionable sanctionable (sanction) friable enviable
predictably preferably undeniably amicably
These exceptions keep the Ar: curable incurable securable procurable. This may possibly be to prevent a clash e.g. carriable.
Full strokes Bee + Ell, if the hooked BL cannot be joined. Add the dot vowel for '-ably':
countable accountable unaccountable lamentable
rent rentable actionable impressionable
fashionable fissionable adjustable detestable
contestable contrastable surmountable but insurmountable mountable
unmentionable remarkable/remarkably* but probable/probably/probability* already includes the suffix *Contractions After short forms:
believable buildable deliverable but giveable/givable speakable unspeakable Top of page
4. -est -ist (a) Stee Loop wherever possible:
bare barest tightest saddest blackest biggest safest iciest
rashest merriest airiest warmest soonest lowest
fewest pianist violinist behaviourist specialist economist
Add to short forms: largest greatest* nearest but very veriest
short form
(a) Halved Ess: Where Stee Loop cannot be written, use a halved Ess. In a few instances this has to be written upwards and is the only instance of a stroke being written directly upwards. This is no problem, as, being half size, it is similar to writing the upward-travelling part of a Ses circle or Shun Hook. In some sets of words, the endings -er -est -ish can look very similar if not carefully written:
abolitionist contortionist demolitionist exclusionist * exhibitionist *The halved Ess is the first up/downstroke and so that is the one resting on the line, despite being last stroke of the outline.
receptionist perfectionist reconstructionist illusionist positivist
conservationist preservationist revisionist creationist
impressionist expressionist expansionist nutritionist
plainest earnest sternest toughest kindest grandest hardest shortest*
short form
'Highest' is a derivative of 'high' so keeps the downward Hay:
high highest compare heist, newest to distinguish from next* The suffix '-sist -sest' is written as follows wherever possible:
*Short form
pharmacist publicist biblicist romanticist aerodynamicist
choicer choicest closest closish* crossest grossest coarsest *Consider inserting vowel before Ish
fiercest hoarser hoarsest horsy horsiest loosest wisest
scarcer scarcest false falsest consist consistent
spice spicier spicy spiciest raciest
sauce sauced saucer saucier sauciest saucy
In the above, the Circle S provides a clear, fast and easy transition between the strokes. The examples below using Ess and Stee Loop make forming derivatives easier:
classicist* racist** empiricist exorcist* historicist *See derivatives below **Suggested outline, not in dictionary, but based on the other examples in this line
physicist phoneticist geneticist lyricist fantasist romancist
dense densest nicer nicest incest but incestuous See also Theory 4 Circles/Ses for words like 'exist insist accessed processed' where it is not a suffix. Top of page
5. -ess This suffix denotes the female version of a noun. In the following, stroke Ess is used (rather than Circle S) so that it does not look like a plural of the root word, and also makes it clear that there is an extra syllable:
heirs heiress heiresses manageress countess Jewess
princess deaconess vicaress prophetess murderess archeress The following examples have a clear difference between the plural and the female versions, so do not need to use the stroke Ess:
stewards stewardess shepherds shepherdess authors authoress
barons baroness* emperors empress lions lioness
*Compare with barrenness
governors* governess** mayors mayoress adulterers adulteress *Using contraction
**In full with R Hook on the Vee, not using contraction
hunters huntress hosts hostess caterers cateress
priests priestess sculptors sculptress tempters temptress
enchanters enchantress giants giantess seducers seductress
masters mistress seamsters seamstress songsters songstress
abbots abbess dukes duchess A few outlines have the same outline for both the plural and the female version, after a hooked stroke and where there is no extra syllable added. In these you should consider inserting the last vowel:
actress benefactress tigress waitress
actors benefactors tigers waiters I have avoided calling the root words the 'male' version as they are commonly used to cover either or both, as many of the '-ess' variants are falling out of use or becoming more narrowed in their meaning. A few other words use stroke Ess to give clearer outlines:
Mrs/missis/missus to distinguish from Misses, Moses, Jesus compare Jews Top of page
6. -ism Circle S + Em wherever it can join:
escapism tropism cubism snobbism malapropism
absenteeism truism altruism autism conservatism
egotism faddism hybridism neologism
catechism monarchism anarchism
emotionalism idealism realism capitalism
surrealism pluralism materialism nationalism
vandalism optimism euphemism extremism
legalism heroism naturism barbarism
secularism cynicism classicism racism* exorcism
*Suggested outline, not in
criticism scepticism solecism ostracism
witticism narcissism stoicism
dogmatism schematism patriotism favouritism These cannot show the I vowel of -ism as there is nowhere for it to go, due to the halving. The following have to make an awkward change of curve direction, something avoided wherever possible. The circle is written in the direction it would take if the two strokes were straight ones i.e. outside the angle that they would make. Do not write a circle going back on itself, another ungainly movement which is restricted to a few instances of Hay (Theory 12 page) within an outline, and slightly less awkwardly in words like disagree (Theory 18 page) to indicate an R Hook:
pacifism alcoholism colonialism racialism aphorism Where Circle S + Em is not convenient or possible, strokes Zee + Em are used (generally after hooks):
mechanism organism paganism modernism humanism
determinism sectarianism Wesleyanism authoritarianism
impressionism perfectionism divisionism revolutionism
Compare the above with ransom lonesome* where the S is written inside the N Hook, there being no vowel after the N. This formation is not used for 'nism'. *More examples on Theory N F V Hooks page Top of page
En + S + Em – The Circle S is written inside the En:
anachronism communism chauvinism
galvanism journalism* religionism
*Alternative contraction
Puritanism creationism (creation) Compare the above with compound words, where the Circle S is written inside the curve it belongs to, thus reflecting where the syllable breaks:
N-SM: non-smoker unsmiling unseam unseemly
unsymptomatic unsympathetic* noisome** handsome *Retains first position of the contraction
**noy/annoy+some, not derived from 'noise'
unsmart unsummoned pianissimo
NS-M: Norseman newsman newsmonger nursemaid
MS-N: misname misnomer enormousness venomousness -ism can be added to a contraction:
commercialism reformism republicanism* subjectivism
*Choice of contractions
magnetism enthusiasm need no suffix. Top of page
7. -less Ell + Circle S, as per normal rules:
priceless hopeless regardless rainless countless groundless
landless relentless talentless childless* wordless*
*Using short forms
stainless senseless scentless soundless Disjoin if necessary, in which case it might be prudent to insert the E vowel, to prevent it looking like '-lessness' (on Theory 20 Suffixes Contracted page) which is always disjoined and never vocalised:
friendless frontless ambitionless but motionless The outline may change from hook or loop to full strokes, to enable the Ell to be joined:
painless brainless moonless roofless waveless
pointless dauntless boundless mindless If the original outline uses Stee Loop, it may omit the lightly sounded T to enable the Ell to be joined:
restless rustless trustless listless but costless to distinguish from causeless Add the whole suffix, even if the outline already ends in a stroke Ell – pronunciation generally reflects the two L sounds:
*soulless skill-less nail-less vowel-less *See also L Forms/3. Vowel Indication/(b) Finally for further explanation and examples.
Top of page
8. -ness En + Circle S, as per normal theory:
happiness business rightness richness rigidness
slowness willingness wilderness tenderness
airiness laziness weariness looseness (loose)
Add to short forms and contractions: shortness coldness dearness togetherness Add the whole suffix even if there is already a stroke En or N Hook at the end of the original word:
openness plainness rottenness cleanness suddenness
outspokenness thinness sternness evenness meanness
barrenness stubbornness foreignness modernness
roundness goldenness* alienness frozenness brazenness
*Using short form
wantonness commonness uncommonness uncertainness
In the names Guinness McGuinness it is not a suffix, so only one stroke En is needed The final hook or loop may need to change to full stroke to allow the En to be joined:
lean leanness sullenness sereneness but slenderness to retain the doubling
moist moistness august augustness fast fastness vastness
Disjoin if necessary (lack of angle, generally after halved stroke):
aptness ineptness corruptness abruptness completeness badness
tightness straightness indebtedness deadness promptness tiredness largeness* *Using short form
There is no special suffix for -liness, just add '-ness' to the existing outline:
brotherliness chilliness cleanliness costliness
cowardliness disorderliness earliness surliness
wholeness oiliness silliness steeliness lowliness loneliness
liveliness manliness womanliness neighbourliness
unsightliness timeliness unseemliness worldliness Sometimes the -ly is disjoined out of necessity, making it look like a special disjoined suffix, which it is not:
friendliness gentlemanliness heavenliness but slovenliness*
*See asterisked
note above
An affix is a grammatical addition, attached to one end of a word, in order to expand or change its meaning:
 At the beginning it is called a prefix.  At the end it is called suffix. Contracted suffixes:
      
Leave out some of the consonants Are disjoined, apart from '-ward' etc and some '-ship' words Are not vocalised, except for the U diphthong in '-uality.' Any third place vowel that comes before a contracted suffix is written to the preceding stroke. The placement of disjoined strokes is much easier when no vowels are being written in. A vowel before a contracted suffix sometimes has no stroke that it can be written to and so it is disregarded in those instances. Such vowels are underlined in the longhand throughout this page. Some of the suffixes are whole words in their own right, and the disjoined suffix can often be used in advanced phrases to represent those words – 'fullness mental mentality ship shipment logical ability'. Such phrases are not recommended for those still learning the system,
likely to produce more hesitation than speed. These phrases will be included in a future Phrasing page. CONTRACTED SUFFIX 9. -lessness -lousness
Disjoined Ell + Circle S.
10. -fulness
Eff + Ell, or the hooked stroke FL. Disjoined Eff + Circle S for -fulness.
11. -ment -mental -mentally -mentality
-ment occasionally omits M and uses just halved En i.e. -ent. Disjoin 'mnt' for -mental/ly/ity.
12. -ship
Joined or disjoined Ish. In full where clearer.
13. -ward -wart -wort -yard
Halved Way, Halved Yay, omitting the R. No need to disjoin. Ocasionally using stroke Ard
14. -logical -logically
Disjoined Jay.
15. -lity -rity & similar
Disjoin the stroke before the ending. In full where clearer or where necessary.
9. -lessness -lousness Disjoined Ell + Circle S, never vocalised:
defencelessness homelessness hopelessness powerlessness recklessness
ruthlessness tirelessness uselessness weightlessness carelessness * short form
callousness perilousness parlousness garrulousness
ridiculousness tremulousness incredulousness meticulousness
populousness scrupulousness fabulousness querulousness * *Can also be pronounced with a long 'oo' vowel instead of the U diphthong.
miraculousness frivolousness in full because the L is in the hook. The original direction of Ell is irrelevant for '-lessness', as there is no join to affect the choice:
effortless effortlessness endless endlessness sunless sunlessness As the '-lessness' suffix is never vocalised, it need never clash with a '-less' that has had to be disjoined. If necessary, you can put the vowel in '-less' as it is not a contracted suffix:
friendless friendlessness
Neither textbooks nor dictionary has any mention of the plural '-lessnesses' but it would be logical to change the Circle S of the suffix to a Ses Circle. Top of page
10. -fulness Disjoined Eff + Circle S, never vocalised. The suffix is tucked under the main outline, but the placement may vary slightly so that the pen does not travel too far or awkwardly before beginning the Eff stroke:
artfulness hurtfulness bashfulness bountifulness deceitfulness eventfulness
faithfulness fearfulness fancifulness forgetfulness frightfulness fruitfulness
gracefulness gratefulness healthfulness helpfulness hopefulness
harmfulness joyfulness lawfulness painfulness meaningfulness * *Suggested outline, not in dictionary
peacefulness playfulness plentifulness spitefulness lawfulness tactfulness * *Suggested outline, not in dictionary
resourcefulness skilfulness usefulness fitfulness hatefulness
watchfulness wastefulness thoughtfulness* youthfulness *All variations with 'thought' should be vocalised, to distinguish from 'thank' see thankfulness below
Add to short form or contraction:
carefulness cheerfulness thankfulness truthfulness disrespectfulness but wonderfulness* *This outline does not use the short form, therefore stroke Way is vocalised
In full: fullness awfulness
The disjoined suffix is not used in beautifulness delightfulness doubtfulness as that would make a longer and less recognisable outline. Also distinguishing outline dutifulness. See also L Forms/3. Vowel Indication/(b) Finally for more on '-ful -fully' Top of page
11. -ment & -mental -mentally -mentality (a) -ment is written as per normal rules wherever it can join. As such it does not count as a contracted suffix and so is vocalised:
payment oddment ointment argument garment easement assessment
arrangement raiment disbursement moment movement
apartment compartment lament annulment amusement* amazement* *All variations of these two should always have the second vowel inserted.
Where the '-ment' cannot join, the outline or the suffix may change to enable a join. A disjoin is not possible for '-ment' because that it used for 'mental' etc:
amending amendment assorting assortment bereave bereavement A preceding N Hook may be omitted to allow the suffix to join, and such outlines are then generally classed as Contractions:
abandonment appointment enlightenment entertainment assignment
atone atoning atonement* atonement/attainment* contentment compare torment * Choice of outlines for 'atonement', either in full or contraction. Keep the halved En short so it does not look like 'atoning'. As 'atonement' and 'attainment' share the same contracted outline, a non-dictionary suggestion would be to insert the O vowel for atonement, being the less common word.
Where a final '-ment' cannot join satisfactorily, the M sound is omitted and only '-ent' is written. This is necessary because a disjoined 'mnt' is allocated to 'mental/ly/ity'. This counts as a contracted suffix and is therefore is not vocalised; any third place vowel coming before the suffix must be written against the previous stroke. There is never any need to disjoin the -nt:
postponement enchantment refinement confinement arraignment
achievement pavement approvement deferment preferment merriment
resentment consignment commandment ascertainment monument
effacement defacement commencement announcement pronouncement
denouncement enhancement (enhance) imprisonment
accompaniment advancement tenement alignment enlistment
discernment to distinguish from discerning Take care that the halved En does not resemble an Ing, which would have a similar meaning in some cases e.g. 'the postponement of the interview' or 'the postponing of the interview'. Top of page
(b) -mental -mentally -mentality The suffix -mnt is disjoined to represent all these three, and is never vocalised. As they are separate parts of speech (adjective, adverb and noun)
they are unlikely to clash in meaning. The text lines below show only the first of the three endings, for the sake of simplicity:
compartmental departmental detrimental developmental instrumental monumental
governmental* regimental segmental sacramental documental
environmental* argumental* fragmental* incremental judgemental/judgmental *Suggested outlines, not in dictionary
sentimental supplemental temperamental fundamental (fundament) These are written in full, adding the dot vowel for '-ly':
mental mentally aliment alimental element elemental
ornament ornamental uses Ray so that the Em can join. The lone word 'mentality' is written with disjoined Tee, see '-ality' section below. -mentalism -mentalist and similar expansions of the suffix are written in full:
experiment experimental/experimentally/experimentality experimentist experimented
experimentalism experimentalist experimenter
mentalism* mentalist* fundamentalist
*Suggested outlines, not in dictionary
environmentalist environmentalism sentimentalist Top of page
12. -ship (a) Generally a joined or disjoined Ish, unvocalised. Circle S can be added as normal:
airmanship chairmanship championship draughtsmanship craftsmanship
horsemanship marksmanship workmanship statesmanship
sportsmanship penmanship one-up-manship seamanship * *The 3rd place vowel stays with the Ess, as this is a compound word.
senatorship companionship traineeship* citizenship *Note the 3rd place vowel is written to the En, and not the Ish
friendship friendships township townships guardianship governorship * *Alternative contraction
kingship ownership partnership entrepreneurship * *Shorthand dictionary gives this with French pronunciation, but it is shown here anglicised 'ontre'. As it is a very common word nowadays, a non-dictionary suggestion would be to use a doubled En for that part.
relationship interrelationship* sponsorship censorship *It is helpful to exaggerate the slight angle between the doubled En and the Ray. Top of page
Disjoined, with the Ish written downwards:
readership leadership ladyship scholarship rulership chancellorship
apprenticeship discipleship kinship courtship membership doctorship
editorship* managership ambassadorship directorship* *choice of pronunciations *See Distinguishing Outlines List 1 'auditor' for further on this.
proprietorship inspectorship collectorship
dealership controllership receivership premiership authorship
dictatorship spectatorship hardship stewardship midship midshipman
lordship* trusteeship tutorship chaplainship compare chaplainc *Choice of short form or contraction
These are clearer in full and are vocalised as normal:
fellowship worship apostleship If a speaker made up a similar word ending in the syllable '-ish', you would need to put in the vowel to show that the stroke Ish is being used as normal and not as the '-ship' suffix:
salesmanship showmanship salesman-ish showman-ish (b) 'ship' (=boat) used as a noun or verb in a compound word is joined, as per normal rules:
airship/heirship storeship starship steamship
flagship longship warship reship unship If it cannot be joined, rather than disjoin the whole of 'ship', it copies the suffix by using an unvocalised disjoined Ish:
troopship fireship lightship spaceship battleship
Note: tranship* transhipment transship* transshipment shipment
meanings Top of page
13. -ward -wart -wort -yard These are written with a halved Way or Yay, omitting the R:
upward onward outward inward backward downward awkward reward Note rewarded
stalwart lungwort mugwort moonwort thwart athwart
backyard coalyard graveyard lanyard shipyard steelyard vineyard When halved Way does not make a good join, use Ard, or Ray halved, with medial W sign; this is vocalised, as it does not count as a contracted suffix:
eastward seaward landward windward heavenward Way halved may also be used for '-wood' in names, and this is also vocalised:
Norwood Northwood Brentwood Linwood Harwood Kingswood
Hayward Edward using the contracted suffix, and Heywood/Haywood with all full strokes for extra differentiation; Rosewood for extra legibility after the circle S. In phrases, halved Way and Yay can replace short forms 'word' 'would' 'yard' if the short forms do not join easily :
these words, every word, they would, we would, 500 yards, several yards Apart from these contracted suffixes, the only other instances of longhand letter R being omitted in outlines are in worsted (woollen material) and Worcester. All other words spelled with letter R must show it in the outline, even though its pronunciation is often slurred or absent in many English accents.
Top of page
14. -logical -logically Disjoined Jay. The text lines below show only the first of the two endings, for the sake of simplicity:
analogical archaeological biological philological physiological
cosmological etymological entomological eschatological genealogical
geological chronological horological ideological meteorological * *The Jay could go further up, for the sake of lineality, when this outline is not being vocalised
mineralogical* ornithological pathological pharmacological *One of the older New Era dictionaries (1950's) gives the Jay tucked underneath the En, but this version (from the 1974 dictionary) is preferable.
psychological sociological bacteriological* seismological* *Suggested outline, not in dictionary
technological terminological theological zoological tautological
logical logically -logy -logist and -loger are written in full, as per normal rules:
biology geology meteorology neurology technology physiology
biologist geologist geologer chronologer mythologer See below for logicality Top of page
15. -lity -rity
 Both these suffixes are indicated by disjoining the stroke that comes before.
 The first vowel of the suffix varies:   
-ality -ility -elity -olity -lty -alty -elty -eality -iality -ualty -uality -arity -erity -ority The disjoined stroke stands for itself plus any of the above variations i.e. the suffix itself is not actually written. The disjoined stroke is not vocalised, except for diphthong U in -uality. In a few instances the disjoined stroke has an R Hook (liberality neutrality)
Where possible, the vowel immediately before the disjoined stroke is written against the previous stroke, even if it is a 3rd place vowel. Where this vowel cannot be written in (because the preceding consonant is a circle or hook, so there is nowhere to place it) the vowel sign is omitted:
profitability = profita B ility
but compressibility = compress (i) B ility
profitable compressible The unwritable vowel is underlined throughout this page: The disjoined stroke takes no vowel sign, except the U diphthong. The vowel after the U is deemed to be part of the suffix and so is not shown by the usual tick on the diphthong:
eventuality = even TU ality intellectuality punctuality The L or R of '-lity -rity etc' is not shown in the outline, it is only inferred by disjoining the stroke before. If there is a disjoined Ell or Ray, it is because that is a separate sound that precedes the suffix e.g:
popularity admiralty popu L arity - disjoin the Ell, and the R in -arity is not written. admi R alty - disjoin the Ray, and the L in -alty is not written. The examples below are listed based on the stroke that is being disjoined, rather than the exact ending itself: Pee
principality municipality prosperity Bee
acceptability admissibility availability comprehensibility flexibility
attainability adaptability possibility* impossibility imponderability *Alternative contraction
credibility desirability durability expansibility feasibility
fusibility immutability inability inconvertibility inevitability
stability instability visibility invisibility irritability
mobility nobility portability predictability capability reliability
sociability (but sociable) suitability verbality liberality barbarity Top of page
Tee Dee
ductility gentility hostility hospitality mentality* suffix
mortality neutrality utility versatility volatility*
*see above for when used as a
*The 1974 shorthand dictionary gives the outline entirely in full strokes, but an earlier 1950's New Era dictionary gives it as above, which is preferable. No clash is apparent that would call for using full strokes.
fidelity infidelity feudality solidarity
posterity dexterity* Note: dextral dextrality**
*manual skilfulness **right-
fragility vagility majority A disjoined Jay also represents '-logical -logically', but as the above words are the only examples found, this presents no problem. Kay Gay
comicality rascality practicality technicality
logicality* illogicality* criticality* musicality* paradoxicality* *Suggested outlines, not in dictionary
prodigality frugality regality vulgarity Vee
conviviality frivolity joviality novelty servility Ish Zhee
sensuality casualty Top of page
Em En
formality normality* abnormality* *Choice of contraction or full outline
carnality geniality congeniality originality
juvenility finality minority* Ell
*Choice of pronunciations
polarity bipolarity popularity similarity insularity*
*Choice of contraction or full
angularity granularity singularity jocularity
regularity irregularity Note contractions: peculiar/peculiarity familiar/familiarity Ray
plurality severalty ephemerality* ethereality* *Suggested outlines, not in dictionary
generality* unreality admiralty mayoralty
*Not using short form, therefore
vocalised Top of page
Written in full: The suffix is written in full if that produces a better outline, or if the above contracted suffix cannot be written: (a) in short words where there is only one stroke before the suffix, i.e. the stroke has nothing that it can be disjoined from:
ability agility jollity cruelty reality celerity
frailty sterility actuality duality humility
modality polity loyalty royalty sociality
senility sonority (b) where the consonant that would be disjoined is represented by something other than a stroke, i.e. there is no stroke to disjoin:
Circle: causality docility facility sincerity imbecility
R Hook: scurrility morality Note: moral L Hook:
clarity circularity equality* *Alternative using short form
faculty verticality classicality topicality
civility penalty personality tonality veniality
artificiality essentiality partiality impartiality potentiality
provinciality speciality specialty substantiality superficiality In the above examples, note that -ciality & -tiality omit the diphone IA, leaving the Shel stroke unvocalised. This avoids striking the diphone sign through the Ish in a very awkward corner where there is not really room for it. The outlines are perfectly readable without it.
Shun Hook: rationality nationality conventionality constitutionality * *This is normal disjoining out of necessity, not a special suffix.
Halving: austerity fertility spirituality*
*Using short form
Top of page
(c) where the word is easier or clearer written in full:
accessibility asperity centrality compatibility incompatibility
cordiality incivility lineality rurality
puerility triviality tranquillity/tranquility sorority temerity (d) Avoided in some distinguishing outline pairs:
disparity disability, juniority geniality, futurity futility
locality legality, corporeality corporeity (e) Not used for similar-looking adjectives, where it is not a suffix:
faulty guilty malty salty silty (f) The contracted suffix is never used for -urity -ulity -iority. This seems to be mainly because all the existing words happen to fall into the above categories for writing in full:
purity impurity security insecurity
maturity immaturity credulity incredulity sedulity
obscurity* garrulity priority
*Choice of full outline or contraction
superiority inferiority seniority priority
SHORT FORMS Strokes: P B T D Logogram
Short Form
Derivatives/related/similar words
putting (present participle of put), putt, putting (present participle of putt)
special specially specialise specialist
speak speaking speaker spoke spoken
principle principal principally principled principality people
peopling peopled
surprise surprises surprising surprisingly surprised
particular particularly particularity particle
opportunity opportunist opportunism inopportune
spiriting spirited spiritual spirit-level 'spiritual' and its derivatives sit on the line rather than placing the Ell stroke through the line, in order to keep the short form part in its correct position
be being become becoming became bee
to be to become, Toby subject subjected
subjecting subject-matter (=noun; if used as separate words in a phrase, the main short form would be used)
subjective subjectively subjectivity* subjectivism* subjectiveness
*These two are Optional Contractions
liberty liberate liberated libertine member remember remembere d
membership remembering remembrance dismember
number numbered numbering numberless
belief believe believed believing believer believable believingly behalf been
Can use N hook in some cases, e.g. had been
has-been (noun), had been, have been, may have been
balance balancing balanced balance-sheet
build building buildable build-up
it its it's itself
truthful truthfulness
tried trying trier trial toward trade
trading trader tradesman trade-union trades-union towards
tell telling teller tell (=hill)
until till (=cash register or work the soil) (It is incorrect to put an apostrophe before the logogram till, it is a word in its own right and not a contraction of until)
told toll tolled
circumstanc e circumstances circumstantial not to be confused with the contraction: substantial-ly
satisfaction satisfy satisfactory satisfactorily
instructive instructively instructiveness instruction
instruct instructor instructional
had hadn't
do doing done doer
diferent diference diferently difer diferential diferentiate
Dr doctor doctoring doctorate doctrine
dear dearer dearest dearly dearness deer
during durable duration endure enduring
deliver delivered delivery delivering deliverer deliverable
advantage advantaged advantageous advantageously advantageousness
difficult difficulty
Strokes: Chay J K Gay Logogram
Short Form
Derivatives/related/similar words Include the stroke m in phrases
muchness muchly, too much
whichever whichsoever witch wych-elm wych-hazel
chair chairing chairman chairmen chairmanship chaired
cheer cheering cheerer cheerful cheerfully cheerfulness cheery cheerio cheered
child childhood childish childlike children (Childlike is the dictionary outline, but is difficult to write well, and you may prefer to write it disjoined)
large largest largeness largesse
general generally generalship generality generalissimo
generalisatio n generalise
justification justify justifiable justice
gentleman gentlemanly gentlewoman
gentlemen gentlewomen
can can (=vessel)
cannot can't cant (=hypocritical talk)
come coming come-back newcomer
because cause 'cos (the wavy line alerts you to an unusual word or usage) care
caring carefree careful carefully careless cared
accord -ing accordingly accordance accordant
call calling caller caul
called so-called
equal equalling equalise equaliser equality
cold equalled coldly colder coldest cold-frame
school schooling schoolmaster schoolboy schooled
quite quiet
could could not couldn't
inscribe inscribed inscribing inscriber
inscription inscriptive Vocalise in phrases go going gone go-kart, to go
give given giving giver forgive signify signified significant
signifying significantly
significance significancy signification
guard guarding guarded guardian
great greater greatest x2 greatly greatness grate grateful (There is a choice of 2 outlines for greatest)
gold golden goldmine gild gilded gilder
Short Forms Intro – List 1 – List 2 – List 3 – List 4
Strokes: F V Ith Thee Logogram Short Form
Derivatives/related/similar words
for forasmuch four/fore
from therefrom wherefrom (the Em is included so that the hooked Eff does not look like 'ever' Use V hook in phrases where convenient have having haven't, which have, who have
several severally sever severalty severance severe
over overcome overeat
however howsoever
valuation value valued valuer
very very well, verily veriest
thank thanked
thanking thankful thankfully thankfulness thankless thanklessness thoughtless thoughtlessness
think thinking thinkable thinker unthinking unthinkable third
thirding thirdly third-rate third-class
though although them
themselve s
Same as the phrase 'this is'
those thyself
thus thusly these
there their theirs/there is, their own within
southern southerner southernmost southerly southmost that
Therefore means 'for that reason' Therefor is an archaic way of saying 'for it' or 'for that'
Short Forms Intro – List 1 – List 2 – List 3 – List 4
Strokes: Circles Zee Ish Zhee M N L Ar Ray Way Vowels Logogram Short Form Derivatives/related/similar words Write anti-clockwise from the top as has Use large circle for: as is, as his, as has Write anti-clockwise from the top is his
Use large circle for: is as, is his Write anti-clockwise from the top
first first-aid first-class first-hand firstly firstling first-rate Use Way and circle S in phrases where convenient was that was
whose whosesoever (In actual speech, 'whosesoever' would sound no different from 'whosoever' and you need to make a grammatical decision on which one was meant) shall shalt shall not, shan't
wish wishing wisher wishful wishbone wishy-washy wished selfish -ness selfishly selfless selflessness
sure surely sureness surest surety shore shaw (Note: shore/shaw – R is always shown in shorthand regardless of local pronunciation)
short shortly shorter shortest shortage shorthand short-handed usual usually
pleasure pleasured pleasurable
me methinks methought myself my own self Vocalise in phrases him hymn, for him himself
most mostly more remark remarked Moorish moreish remarking remarkable re-mark (=mark again) Use this for both meanings of mere i.e. only and a lake Mr mere
merely, merest, mister, Messrs (Use Mr short form when a name follows, use mister when it is a free standing word)
important importance importantly import imported improve improved improveme nt
improving improver improvise
impossible impossibly impossibility
in any anybody anyhow anyone anything inn Vocalise in phrases; can use N hook in phrases where convenient own owning owned owner ownerless, in his own influence influencing influential influentially influenced next
nor gnaw (R is always shown in shorthand regardless of local pronunciation) near nearing neared nearest nearly nearby nearness nearer opinion opinionated opine opining northern north northward northerly northerner northernmost
information inform/informed informing informer informative
hand handing handful handed handiwork Handley under understand undertake undergo underhand sent language owing languish languid thing young younger youngest youngster youngish youngling Upstroke for the short form and L generally, but there are exceptions for other uses of L lord lordly lordling lording lordship x2 Lord's (there is a choice of 2 outlines for 'lordship')
yours yourself yourselves yore yaw (Note: yore/yaw – R is always shown in shorthand regardless of local pronunciation (yore means time long past, yaw means to turn on a vertical axis)
year yearly yearling yearlong yearbook
yard yardstick yardage Use Way halved in phrases where convenient word wording wordily wordy worded catchword, these words Can use R hook in some phrases: are they are our hour
ourselves ourself This is stroke Ray using the doubling principle outside of the normal rules. Using Hook N for 'rather than' is also an exception to the normal order of reading attachments. rather writer write writing written
we wee whether weather/wether (=sheep)
wonderful wonderfully
wonder wondering wondrous wondrously wander SHORT FORMS DERIVED FROM VOWEL MARKS:
a an ah! the eh? aye
In older books, the dots are shown light, with a heavy dot for 'ah!' In older books, the dots are shown light, with a heavy dot for 'eh? aye' Aye rhymes with pay and is an archaic word for 'always', such as in the phrase 'for ever and aye.' It can be spelt ay.
I/eye eyes eyesight aye-aye (=an animal) aye
Aye rhymes with eye and is a dialectal or archaic word for 'yes'. It is commonly used in spoken voting (ayes and noes), and as an affirmative by seamen 'Aye aye, Captain'. It can be spelt ay. This is generally given as a short form, but it does seem to be a complete outline in itself, just like 'I' or 'eye', as nothing is missing Use V hook in phrases where convenient
of number of, couple of Can use halving in some phrases
to together, today/to do/to-do (=a fuss), able to
all altogether all-round all-in all-important always awl (in 'awl' this is the vowel signed joined, not the short form) too two
too much, two-fold two-seater Use N hook in phrases where convenient
on onwards on-coming onset on-cost onlooker, to carry on
but butt butte O oh! owe he
owed owes Not free-standing, use only in phrases, medially and finally, otherwise use downward stroke Hay
Up or down tick joined to end of preceding outline. Not freestanding, use only in phrases, medially and finally, but not initially, otherwise use dot the. It has no position of its own, therefore line not shown. Tends to have a slightly shallower angle when written upwards, to maintain speed and flow.
thee Upstroke and
rock-n-roll Upstroke
shouldn't should've shoed/shooed Downstroke awe ought aught awed awing awful awfully awesome awe-struck Downstroke
who whoever whoso whosoever whom whomsoever Hoo (note: whom etc have tick Hay, not the who short form)
how howsoever, Howe/how (=low hill), howitzer, Howard ('howsoever' is a contraction in 2nd position)
with withstand withdraw withhold withal
whenever whensoever whence whencesoever (In actual speech, 'whensoever' would sound no different from 'whencesoever' and you need to make a grammatical decision on which one was meant.)
what whatever whatsoever what-not Watt wot (=archaic for 'knew')
Use Way halved in phrases where convenient would would-be (adjective), they would be, wouldn't wood wooed
beyond yon yonder Can be rotated when joining in a phrase you you'll ewe/yew, are you why Wye wight white Short Forms Intro – List 1 – List 2 – List 3 – List 4
Amendments 16 July 2013: Several discrepancies have been found in the largest 1974 red dictionary, in comparison with the dictionaries produced before and after it, and so the outlines here have been corrected (see also Contractions Optional page)
1. Using first 2 or 3 consonants only
Related words
advertise/advertised/advertisement advertising
advert advertent adverted advertiser
capable capably capableness capability
character characterful
characterise characterising
characterisation Choice of 2 contractions
characteristic characteristically
certify certified certification certificated
commercial/commercially commercialism
commerce commercialise
substantial/substantially insubstantial/insubstantially unsubstantial/unsubstantially
substance substantiate substantiality substantive
Advisable to insert the first vowel in the last two outlines. A nondictionary alternative would be to write 'insubstantial/ly' through the line.
cross-examine/cross-examined/ cross-examination cross-examining (i.e. 'crossegsamine')
exam examine examining
examination examiner
descriptions* describe Top of page
*It is possible that the plural is not a contraction because it would be similar to 'discourse'. See descriptive on Contractions Optional page
subscript subscriber
These also omit the R.
See also superscribe/d/superscription on Contractions Optional page
These cannot reverse the circle S to indicate an R, unlike description, as the angle is too sharp for a circle to be written clearly.
unsubscribe/unsubscribed Suggested outline, not in dictionary
difficult (Short form)
discharging dischargeable undischarged
electric Note plural 'electrics' has full outline electrical
electrics electrician electrify electrified
electrically electricity electrification electrocute* electrocution* *Note U diphthong is turned on its side when attached, but not when unattached See electron electronic on
Contractions Optional page
enthusiasm/enthusiastic enthusiastically
enthuse enthused enthusiast enthusiastical
special/specially especial/especially
establish/established/establishment establishing establishmentarian
disestablishment re-establish/re-established/ re-establishment* *This one is exceptional, as the stroke for 're-' generally goes through the line. See exchanger on Contractions Optional page exchange/exchanged exchanging exchangeable exchangeability
expedience expedite expedition
expedient expediently Top of page
See expeditiously on Contractions Optional page
expenditure expend expendable expended
expensive expensively inexpensive
expense* expenses expensiveness *consider inserting the 2nd vowel, to give greater distinction from 'expenditure'
familiar/familiarity familiarly unfamiliar/unfamiliarity
familiarise familiarising familiarisation
family familial
financial/financially finance finance* financing
financed financier *Pronunciation of the first vowel of all these varies
govern/governed governing government
governance governorate governess See governor, and covenant which is similar, on Contractions Optional page
governmental governable governability
misgovern/misgoverned ungovernable
immediacy mediate medium
imperturbable imperturbably imperturbability
imperturbation perturb
incorporate* incorporate**
incorporating *verb **adjective, last vowel is short
incorporation reincorporate Top of page Inc./ink
independent/independently/indepe independable (= not to be ndence depended upon) NOTE: The 1974 large dictionary shows the second vowel sign against the underside of the halved ND stroke; this is an error as that would signify that the vowel comes between the N and D.
dispense dispensation dispensable
individual/individually individualise individualistic
individuality individualism indivisible
inform/informed informing informer
informant informative informal
misinform/misinformed information misinformation (short forms)
inspect/inspected/inspection inspecting
inspector inspectorate See inspector-general on
Contractions Optional page
respecting respective
respectively respectable respectability
respectful respectfully respectfulness
disrespect/disrespected irrespective
expect/expected expecting
expectant expectance expectancy
expectorant* *Medical term, different meaning from all the others Top of page
See expectation on Contractions Optional page
imperfect/imperfectly/imperfection imperfectness
perfect perfectly perfection
architected architectonic See architective on Contractions Optional page
objector objectless object/objected objecting objection objectionable
objective objectively* objectivity objectivism *As stroke Ell joins well, there is no need to use the hooked VL stroke.
prospect prospective
prospected prospection prospector
prospectively prospectus
retro retrospect retrospection retrospective retrospectively
suspect*/suspected suspecting unsuspected unsuspecting
suspect* suspecter suspectable suspicion See suspicious on Contractions Optional page
*verb only, accent on 2nd syllable susPECT
*Noun only, accent on first syllable SUSpect
project/projected projecting unprojected
projector projecture projectile* projectile* *Pronunciations vary
projective projectively projet* *French
Top of page
See projection on Contractions Optional page
prejudice/prejudiced/prejudicial/pre judicially prejudicing
prejudication prejudge prejudged
insurance reinsurance
insure insured insurer
reinsure insurant insurants* *Pronunciation is identical to 'insurance', but here the short T sound is a meaningful part of the word
invest investing investor invested
disinvestment reinvestment
reinvest investiture
irresponsibly irresponsibilities
Note plural 'irresponsibilities' has full outline See Theory Prefixes 18 page for all the magnet words magnetic/magnetism magnetically
manufacturing manufacturer
math maths mathematic
mathematical/mathematically mathematician mathematics
The above are easy to differentiate from the contractions when unvocalised, as these are all in first position
max/macs/Mac's maximal
maximise maximisation
mechanical/mechanically mechanic mechanism
mechanisation mechanician Top of page
mortgage/mortgaged mortgaging
mortgager mortgagor
*Suggested outline, not in dictionary
never Same outline as 'November' evermore (Using short form) nevermore (Using short form)
November Same outline as 'never'
organise/organised organises organising
organism organisable
organisation organic organist
organisational organiser reorganise/reorganised
inorganisation* unorganised* disorganise/disorganised *These two should not clash as they are different parts of speech. But if someone should say 'unorganisation' then you would definitely need to insert the first vowel sign.
peculiar/peculiarity peculiarly
perform/performed performing performance
performer performable unperformed
reform/reformed reforming reformer reformism
reformist re-form See reformation on Contractions Optional page
perpendicular perpendicularly
practice/practise/practised practising unpractised
practical practically practicality
impractical practiser* practician
practicable practicably
*Spelled with S, as it is derived from the verb. See practitioner on Contractions Optional page
impracticable practice = noun; practise/d/ing = verb
prelim prelims
Ensure clearly written through the line, and vocalisation would help as well.
prob probs
improbable/improbably/improbabilit Colloquial for 'probably' y 'probabilities' 'problems'
proportional proportionally
proportioning misproportion/misproportioned proportionable proportionment Top of page
proportionate/proportionately disproportionate/disproportionately
pub publicity publicise
publishing publicly publicist public-house publicrelations
See publican on Contractions Optional page
publication publisher
republish/republished Same outline as 'republic' unpublished unpublishable
republic Same outline as 'republish/ed' republican republicanise
republicanism Choice of 2 contractions
recoverable irrecoverable/irrecoverably
unrecoverable/unrecoverably non-recoverable/non-recoverably*
recover recoverer recovery
*Suggested outline, not in dictionary
regularity regularise
regularly regulation regulate regulator
irregular irregularly
rep re-present re-presentation
representation representational
misrepresent/misrepresented unrepresented unrepresentative
responsible/responsibility Note plural 'responsibilities' has full outline. Where 'responsibility' might be misread as 'response', it is safer to use a full outline instead of the contraction.
responsibly responsibilities
response* respond responded *Consider vocalising, to distinguish from the contraction 'responsibility'.
responsive responsively
Top of page
sensible/sensibly/sensibility insensible/insensibly/insensibility
sense sensation sensitive senseless
uniform/uniformly/uniformity uniformed Suggested outline, not in dictionary. An optional method for showing past tense of contractions is to be strike a
short dash through the last stroke.
how* so ever
*Short form
wherein* so ever *Using short form for 'in'
where so ever
whithersoever whither so ever
yesterday yester yesternight yesteryear
efficient/efficiently/efficiency inefficient/inefficiently/inefficiency
efficaceous efficacy
non-efficient/non-efficiently/nonefficiency* *Outline is above the line, see nonefficiency on Prefixes page.
suffice sufficed sufficit*
insufficient/insufficiently/insufficienc *Suggested outline, not in y dictionary. Latin for 'it is enough, it suffices', but sometimes the English is used instead, which is pronounced the same e.g. 'suffice it to say ... '.
distinguish/distinguished distinguishing distinguishable
distinguisher distinct indistinct distinction The hard G and K sounds are omitted from these outlines
extinguish/extinguished extinguishing
extinguisher extinguishment extinct extinction
The hard G and K sounds are omitted from these outlines
inextinguishable unextinguishable Necessary to insert the first vowel in the above two outlines.
relinquish/relinquished (i.e. 'reling') relinquishing (i.e. 'relinging') relinquishment
Top of page 2. Omitting a medial consonant or syllable
destruction destructive
destructor destructible destroy destroying
destructively destructiveness
introduction reintroduction
introduce introductory introductive
See jurisprudence on Contractions Optional page
obstruct obstructed obstructer obstruction obstructive obstructively
produce produced producer production productive productively productivity
produce product Above two words both have accent on first syllable
productiveness unproductive non-productive
See Distinguishing Outlines List 3 for producer/purchaser/predecess or
reproduce repro
reproductive reproductively
perspective perspex perspicuous perspicaceous
abandon abandoned abandoning abandoner
appoint appointing appointed
disappointment reappointment appointee appointer disappoint
assignment reassignment
assign assigned assigning reassign
assigner assignor assignee assignation
See Theory 20 Suffixes for further explanation on attainment/atonement Atonement is also on Contractions Optional page
contentment content/contend contented contents/contends Top of page
See discontentment on Contractions Optional page
contingent contingence contingency
stringent astringent See astringency on Contractions Optional page
emerge emerging emergence emergency
emergent emerged compare agency which would be less legible if it were contracted. See also urgency on Contractions Optional page
exigent exigently
danger dangers dangerous* dangerously *Stroke Ess is used to differentiate this outline from 'dangers'
dangerousness endanger endangered
enlighten enlightened
enlightening enlightener
entertain entertaining entertainer
identical identically
identity ID idea
See ironmaster ironmould on Contractions Optional page
messenger message Messager* Messenger*
Top of page
*Suggested outlines, not in dictionary – full outlines, as F forms/contractions are not generally used for names.
one self oneself
stranger strange strangely strangest estrange
hence forward* *the R is omitted for '-ward' under normal rules See henceforth on Contractions Optional page
thence forward*
*the R is omitted for '-ward' under normal rules See thenceforth on Contractions Optional page
manuscript script scripted
minister ministering ministerial
ministration ministered* ministrant* *These two also omit the R
monster monsters monstrous monstrously monstrosity
demonstrate demonstrating demonstrated
demonstration demonstrator demonstrative demonstratively These also omit the R
remonstrate remonstrating remonstrated remonstration
remonstrative remonstrator remonstrance
remonstrant This also omits the R
administrator administratorship
administer administering administerial
administered administrate* administration admin *Insert the last vowel, to distinguish from 'administered'
administrable administrative administratively The 6 outlines above also omit the R
Top of page
See Distinguishing Outlines List 2 for enjoyable/knowledgeable knowledge knowledgeable knowledgeably knowledgeability* *Suggested outline, not in dictionary
acknowledge acknowledged acknowledging
acknowledger acknowledgement
amalgamate amalgamating
amalgamation amalgamator
arbitrary arbitrarily arbitrate
arbiter arbitrable arbitral See arbitrament on Contractions Optional page
arbitrated arbitration arbitrator arbitratrix
bankruptcy bankrupt bankrupting
defective defect defectively defectiveness defection Top of page
Pronunciation of 'defect' could also be 'dee-'
Here the hard G is omitted 'ing-Gland': Inglis
England Englander English un-English
Englishism Englishman Englishwoman*
See also England/Netherlands in Distinguishing Outlines List 2
Englishwomen* *A non-dictionary suggestion might be to include the W semicircle within the outline, like washerwoman, this would be faster, seeing as the vowel sign is necessary for differentiation.
execs* execute execution**
*Best vocalised, to differentiate from 'executrix'
executor executorship
**The shun hook is facing away from the circle, for balance, rather than away from the preceding vowel. Note U diphthong is turned on its side when attached, but not when unattached
executory executorial
investigation investigate investigator
investigative These also omit the T
identify identified identifying
inconsiderate inconsiderately
inconsideration inconsiderable unconsidered
considerate consideration considering reconsider
Top of page
falsification falsify false falsely falsehood
influence* Compare with initial initially *Short form See intelligencer intelligential intelligibility on Contractions Optional page
intelligence intelligent/intelligently unintelligent/unintelligently intelligentsia
intelligible/intelligibly unintelligible/unintelligibly
legislate legislation legislator
min minima minimise
minimal minimalist
negligence negligent negligible negligibility
See parliamentarian on Contractions Optional page
quest questing request requested
questionableness unquestionable/unquestionably
See question and requesting on Contractions Optional page
removable unremovable See irremovable/irremovably below
removably remove removal remover
satisfactory satisfactorily unsatisfactory
satisfy satisfied satisfying dissatisfied satisfaction* *Short form
sympathetic unsympathetic
sympathy sympathise sympathiser
sympathetical sympathetically pathetic pathetically Top of page
telegraphic telegraph telegraphy telegraphically telex (=Teleprinter Exchange)
uni varsity
universal/universally universality 3. Using short forms List is not exhaustive
anything nothing nothingness
any* no thing* every some *Short forms
everything something
remarkable/remarkably unremarkable/unremarkably
remark/remarked* re-mark *Short form
*Short form
together togetherness altogether
to* all* gather Compare with phrases to give* to go* *Short forms
whatsoever when* what* so
*Short forms
4. Intersected
denomination/denominational undenominational
denominate denominator*
non-denominational* *Suggested outline, not in dictionary; ensure to write the stroke Dee before denominationalism the final N-Shun stroke. *If you were using this word frequently, a non-dictionary suggestion might be to intersect a doubled stroke En i.e. de+nator
enlarge enlarged enlarging enlargement enlarger
large larger largely (short forms)
incandesce incandescing
inconvenient/inconveniently/inconve inconveniencing nience inconvenienced
irremovable/irremovably See removable above
never* less
*Short form
notwithstanding Only thus when one word
withstand withstanding withstood
ratepayers ratepayer Possibly it was considered that the singular form, if intersected, would look too much like the shorthand full-stop which is written as a small cross.
unprincipled principled principle/principal/principally* Top of page
*Short form
5. Omitting first syllable(s)
circumstantial circumstantially
circumstantiate circumstantiality circumstance* *Short form Compare with substantial
contentment See contentment in
section 2 above contingency See contingency in section 2 above Here nothing is omitted, but Tee is written in full to make derivatives easier:
interest interested interesting
interestingly uninterested
disinterest* disinterested disinterestedness *Suggested contraction. This outline, according to the dictionary, is given as an alternative for
'disinterestedness' but as 'disinterest' is now current, I suggest using the contraction for that word, and using the fuller outline for 'disinterestedness'. The outlines were obviously allocated before 'disinterest' as a noun came into common usage. Top of page These should be in 2nd position on the line: horticulture/al, horticulturist, hypothecate/d, inauspicious, inauspiciously, indescribable/ly, jurisprudence, machinery, scornful, scornfully, significancy, unscriptural, vice-chairman.
Alternative outline, not contraction
ad valorem
Full outlines required for:
agriculturalist agricultor antagonism/antagonist/antagonistic
Safe for the noun 'astonishment'. Ensure the En is written clearly full length, to differentiate from 'astound' (see Distinguishing Outlines List1)
Contraction is the same as attainment (Theory 20 Suffixes page)
aurora borealis
Alternative outline, not contraction
baptise/baptised/ Baptist/baptism
Alternative outline, not contraction Using short form 'hand'
Compare with these full outlines:
bondman bondwoman bondmaid
Using short form 'over'
Top of page
Write the contraction clearly through the line, so that it does not look like 'busman' or 'postman'.
In the full outline, the Ish is disjoined so that it does not look like the suffix '-cy':
captaincy careful/carefully
This optional contraction is a suggestion, not in dictionary.
Full outlines required for:
casually casuals (= a type of shoe) Catholic
Roman Catholic
Chiltern Hundreds
Pronunciation of the first vowel may vary
clearing house
'Clearing' on its own has dot ing, as per normal rules
The full outline for 'ConTROversy' with the accent on the second syllable would be above the line with a first place dash vowel 'Controversialist' is a full outline
'Counter' on its own as per normal rules:
counter covenant*
Care needed with the Kay, keeping it thin, as these outlines are similar to govern and government
Full outline required for:
Top of page
descriptively dessertspoonful
Keep the Ray short, otherwise the contraction will look like 'disrespectful'
The dictionary outline for the verb 'develop' is in full only, but using the above contraction for that word presents no problem
Full outline required for:
indignity undignified
Compare indignant below
dilapidate/dilapidated/ dilapidation
See also contentment (Contractions Main page)
Pronunciation of the first vowel may vary: 'dyve-' or 'divv-
Pronunciation of the second vowel may vary: 'doc-try-nal'
dyspepsia/dyspeptic Top of page
The full version of dyspepsia should always have the final diphone
written in, to differentiate from 'dyspepsy' Full outline required for:
dyspepsy ecclesiastic/ecclesiastical/ ecclesiastically
'Ecclesiastes' (Bible book) is a full outline, but the contraction would be useful for noting Bible reference numbers
Alternative outline, not contraction. The first version seems to be more reliable, as the second one is very similar to 'enthroning' which has the same meaning:
enthroning episcopal/episcopalian/episcopalianism
The pronunciation of the first syllable may vary: 'eev-'
Full outline required for 'expeditious'
extravagance/extravagant /extravagantly
Full outline required for 'unfavourably/unfavorably' Compare:
verbal verbally favourably/favorably
Alternative outline, not contraction
Pronunciation of the first vowel may vary - when rhyming with 'full', write the dash through the end of the Eff and outline in 3rd position
In phrasing, 'J-Shun' can also be used to signify 'objection'
governor-general* *Using short form
Top of page
Ensure the two Rays are long and clear, to prevent confusion with 'grand-jury'
Advisable to insert the final dot
Using the short form 'great'
habeas corpus
'haphazardly' is a full outline, but using the contraction with a joined upward Ell would work just as well
See henceforward (Contractions Main page)
See thenceforward (Contractions Main page)
Top of page Some older dictionaries retain the I diphthong after the Hay on the contraction
Full outline required for:
horticultor horticulturist
The full outline for 'hypothecate' does not use a halved Kay because the angle with the Ith would be insufficient for it to be clear
See also Methodism which is similar
Compare undignified above
Using short form 'general'. Full outline required for 'inspector' (Contractions Main page)
Alternative outline, not contraction - dictionary is missing the initial dot on the first version
See also ironmonger (Contractions Main page)
Alternative outline, not contraction
Top of page
Full outline required for 'jurisprudent'
Full outline required for 'juxtapose'
'Corporal' is the contracted part, therefore 'lance' keeps its vowel sign
Alternative intersection, not contraction
life assurance
The intersection for 'insurance' is En+Circle S
= measurement east/west from the Greenwich Meridian. Latitude is north-south measurement from the equator.
Combination of short form 'lord' and contracted suffix 'ship'
Full outline required for:
malignantly man-of-war
Full vocalised outline for:
man-o'-war (suggested outline, not in dictionary) If using this, you should insert the dash vowel after the En for clarity
Full outline required for:
melancholia merchantman
See also 'imperialism' which is similar
Not recommended, although given as above in the biggest dictionary. The stroke Em is used for 'million' when written with numerals, and you cannot add an Ith because that is used for 'thousand'. This will be discussed in a future Phrasing page.
Keep the halved BR stroke short, so it does not look like 'neighbour/neighbor'
non-commissioned officer
obnoxious (i.e. = ob+shus)
obnoxiously (i.e. = ob+shusly)
The short form 'particular' is written above the line
The 'particular' part matches the short form which is also written above the line
Top of page
The contraction is written close to the preceding outline or numeral
The normal outline 'phonic' is similar:
phonic phonography
'Preference' uses N Hook/Circle S
The full outline omits the lightly-sounded T
Privy Council
Alternative intersection, not contraction
Top of page
Note the vowel sign for the 'e' cannot be shown in the vocalised outline, as there is nowhere to place it
Compare 'cultivation' which is similar:
cultivation quarter
Full outline required for:
quartering See also Vocabulary Numbers/quarter for a brief method when used with numbers
Full outline required for:
questioning questioningly question-mark
Alternative intersection, not contraction You could also use the intersection with the contracted version of 'question', but it might be easier (but not strict theory) to write the Em in proximity
Alternative intersection, not contraction If the person says 'quote marks' a non-theory suggestion would be to write Em in proximity to 'quote'
recognizance The pronunciation can be either 'recog-' or 'recon-' and is related to the word recognise. The latter pronunciation is identical to 'reconnaissance' below:
recognise reconnoitre reconnaissance recognizance = a legal obligation reconnoitre reconnaissance = carry out a preliminary geographical or military survey.
See also reform (Contractions Main page)
Alternative short form, not contraction
Alternative short form, not contraction
Alternative short form, not contraction
Top of page
reverend The contraction is for 'reverend' but the full outline also represents 'reverent'
saver scornful
scorn is written with Hook N
Alternative short form, not contraction
The contraction is shown incorrectly on the line in the 1974 dictionary
Alternative intersection, not contraction
The contraction is shown incorrectly on the line in the 1974 dictionary
Using short form 'general'
Alternative intersection, not contraction
'Stepping' on its own uses dot ing
Using short form 'trade'
Alternative outline, not contraction - unlike 'longest', the dictionary shows a vowel in both versions
Compare subscribe/d on Contractions Main page
Compare subscription on Contractions Main page
Top of page
Alternative intersection, not contraction
Alternative intersection, not contraction
Alternative intersection, not contraction
In the full outline, note the Circle S is inside the Em, as it belongs with that syllable.
In the full outline, note the Circle S is inside the En, as it belongs with that syllable.
Alternative intersection, not contraction Using short form 'trade'
Compare 'transfer' which omits the N:
transfer transferrer transformer
The full outline also omits the N
A Dee may be written to any contraction or short form if felt necessary to increase clarity, but this appears to be the only word where it is part of the dictionary outline. Other contractions are perfectly legible without it. Adding the Dee is not part of normal theory (unlike Pitman 2000 which does use it regularly).
Using short form 'under'
Compare this with the optional contraction for 'phenomena' below. The only way to differentiate is to write the Eff towards the end of the stroke En, to show it was written second. 'Unfortunate' is a much more useful contraction, if you were going to choose only one of these two to adopt.
This is the same as the optional contraction for 'unfortunate' above. The only way to differentiate is to write the En more towards the right of the Eff, to show it was written second. See also inconvenient (Contractions Main page) which is similar
Union Jack
Using short form 'trade' Compare:
trade-union trades-union
trade-unionism union
vice versa
Alternative intersection, not contraction
Alternative intersection, not contraction
The full outline uses the R hook rather than Ray, in order to achieve a better join with the Way.
Using short form Top of page
Placenames: Antarctic
British version: omits the H sound US version: use Dot Hay Ensure you keep the two Ems, as in UK locals sometimes refer to their city as 'Brum', from 'Brummagem' the alternative name used in that area.
Great Britain
Using short form 'great'
Jodrell Bank
Alternative intersection, not contraction (=Jodrell Bank Astrophysics Centre, UK)
'Jo'burg' would be a full outline
San Francisco
The abbreviation ' 'Cisco ' would be just the last part of the full outline
New York
New York City
United Kingdom Use only when the words are spoken in full
United States
Use only when the words are spoken in full
United States of America
Use only when the words are spoken in full The full outline phrase omits 'of'
The first outline goes in its correct position, and the others follow on:
it is, it is not, it was, it may be, it can have, it should be, it would not
of it, of them, of that, of her, of me/my, of our, of course
to do, to this, to have, to meet, to send, to stay, to reply
for this, for that, for you may, for many, for myself, for anyone
if we can, if they may, if you can, if you would, if no-one
and they, and this, and we, and I, and is/his/as/has, and there is/has, and be seen, and have done
should have, should be, should not be, should now, should there/their, should this, should we
on his, on which, on many, on your, on our, on those, on that, on their/there
but they, but we may, but must, but can we, but that, but that is, but this, but their/there
I have this, I had them, I do that, I shall be, I thank you, I think that you are, I know that we
you are, you would, you would be, you can/come, you go, you may, you should
we can, we have, we shall be, we do/had*, we may, we are *If necessary, you can indicate that it is 'had' by inserting Dot Hay and the A vowel, see Phrasing 7/had not
he is/has, he is/has not, he was, he cannot be, he may have, he may be pleased, he is unable
she is, she was, she may have, any more, any time, in any case
they may be, they can be, they must, they thought we, they have, they do not, they just
this can have, this can be, this could not, this may*, this time, this does *This sharp change of direction only occurs in a few phrases; in normal outlines the circle goes outside the strokes, see Theory 19 Suffixes/pacifism Top of page
that it, that they, that this, that may, that has been, that is/has not, that is/has never
there are, there cannot, there can be, there was, there would have, there is, there is no-one
have his/as/us, have that, have they/them, have not, have never, have you been, have we seen
which is/has, which has been, which has not been, which we now, which cannot, which should have, which may have
had you, do you, had they/them, do they/them, had that, do that, had we been, do we know
how can they, how may we, how many, how long, how are
why it, why does, why they, why have we, whether it is/has, whether they, whether there are
who can, who gives, who was, who is/has, who would be, who must, who should have
with it, with which, with us/his, with them, with these, with thanks, with that, with whom
when it, when do/had you*, when they, when this, when that is/has, when have we, when we, when is/his/has *If necessary, you can indicate that it is 'had' by inserting Dot Hay and the A vowel, see Phrasing 7/had not
what it, what is/has, what does, what was, what have we, what may, what can they, what would be
would have, would never, would not be, would say, would respond, would go, would the, would his
as/has it -- as it is/has -- is it -- as/has this -- is this -- as/has that -is/his that -- as they may
please take, please have, please do not, take place, taking place, taking away If the first outline of the phrase is normally written above the line, it is sometimes possible to raise or lower the entire phrase to enable the next word to also be in position, saving you having to insert extra vowel signs. However, the first outline should still be clearly in its correct position:
of those, of this, of these, in much, in which, in each, I talk, I take, I took You can do this even if there are more outlines in the phrase than shown above:
of those that have been, of this type of, of these who can, in much the same, in which you may, in each of them Some combinations would not be clear or even legible, so must be written separately:
and of -- and to -- and should -- we should -- should I -- I should As the second and subsequent words are generally out of position, a vowel sign may occasionally be necessary:
at any time, at no time See more on this in Phrasing 6/Essential Vowels/in any no
Top of page 2. Change of Form It is possible to extend the use of abbreviating devices such as hooks, halving, doubling, circle and loops, which may not be possible or advisable if each outline were written separately. The phrase in its entirety contains more information than a single word, so remains legible despite the greater degree of abbreviation:
I hope that you will be able to, in reply to your recent letter, you will have received
and I have been there, we have only just, take into consideration the fact Compare full outlines for these words:
hope will reply letter received
there only consideration fact Top of page (a) Hooks General Final hooks can represent whole words e.g. N for 'on, own, been', F/V for 'of, off, have', Shun for 'association'. R and L hooks can replace the full stroke to achieve a more compact outline or to enable a good join. Occasionally an original hook is omitted to enable the phrase to be formed.
Retain hook: yours truly, take care, in this way
Omit hook: it has been required, in this direction, vice chairman There are only a small number of phrases that omit the hook Reintroduce hook Sometimes a merged hook/circle is shown fully, to enable the phrase to be formed :
I am surprised, I will consider, balance sheet, we are instructed, hair spring
Compare surprised consider balance instructed spring
Hook represents word: our own, carried on, have been, take off, which have/of Top of page If a hook is already being used at the end of an outline, you cannot use that hook to also represent a word in a phrase:
representative of, irrespective of, objective* of, proof of, turn on *The outline for 'objective' (a contraction) is the same as the phrase 'object of' In a single word outline, the normal order of reading is the hook first, and then the halving or doubling sound, but in a few phrases this is
sometimes be overridden. The convenience gained outweighs this incursion into the main theory rule:
part of, report of, in support of, sort of, some sort of
in spite of, instead of, state of the, present state of, high state of
Compare raft, roofed, surfed, deserved, puffed, spoofed, draft/draught, tuft/toughed
later on/than, further on/than, rather than, shorter than
Compare lender, fender, render, shunter Mostly the order of reading the components is kept as normal i.e. Stroke + Hook + ther/ter/der:
been there, will have been there, out of there/their, rid of their
Compare the nouns: binder lavender dafter drifter Top of page Adding hooks to short forms: Phrases consisting of a short form plus hook are not always so instantly recognisable, because short forms do not contain all the consonants of the word. When the 'missing' part is at the beginning, those are easier to read back, but when the missing part comes in the middle or end of the short form, phrasing them with a hook may be more confusing than helpful:
going on, wipe off but go on, go off, put off The following are acceptable, and of course you can also add a Circle S to the hook for 'us, his' etc:
people of, member of, number of, tell of/off, much of, which of/have, chair of
call of/off, equal of, school of, care of, ought to have, who have, you have
had been, larger than, our own, rather than, more than, have been, very own, your own, their own, therefore been The following should be used at your discretion, as the words have 'missing' consonants immediately before the hook:
speak of, principle of, liberty of, truth of, doctor of, delivery of, usually been
Separate outlines for difference of, subject of, belief of compare difficult subjective.
As the 'belief' does not have its own F in the outline, an additional F Hook might cause confusion, as if the outline had been filled out because the correct short form was not known well enough. Top of page R Hook
appear = to appear, it will appear, it appears that, they appeared
park = car park, Central Park, local park
board = electricity board, medical board, local board, your board, board of directors
part = in/any part of, in all parts of, small part of, for my part, on your part
large part of the, on our part, various parts of, taking part of Note taking apart, set apart need the vowel sign to distinguish them
far = so far, so far as, insofar as, too far, how far
very far, is it far, by far the most, by far the worst
force = into force
forth = set forth, so forth, put forth See also Phrasing 8 Intersections/forth
assure = to assure us, I assure you, we can assure you
please be assured, we are assured, you may rest assured
corps/core = army corps, air corps, diplomatic corps
medical corps needs the vowel (or write in full) to distinguish it from medical care. Note corps/cores – the plural is spelled the same and pronounced 'corz'. See also Phrasing 8 Intersections/corporation Top of page
Note also corpus corpuses* corpora*, corpse corpses
*Alternative plurals of 'corpus', depending on the meaning. 'per' in a phrase is written with R Hook or Ray, whichever joins best:
per = per minute, per month, per mile, per kilogramme
per cent*, per annum, per dozen *also an Intersection; the longhand can also be written as one word 'percent' and comes from Latin 'centum' = hundred See also Phrasing 5/miles per hour, miles an hour
order: Doubled: in order, in order that, it is in order that, seems to be in order
Halved: in order to, in order to have, in order to be, in order to be* *If you have already written the doubled version of 'in order', you would then proceed to write the next outline 'be' separately, rather than attempting to replace with the textbook phrase.
'in order to' is easier to remember if you think of the halving as representing the 'to' part
rate, at any rate compare downright, generate, venerate Circle S is occasionally reversed in mid-outline to indicate an R Hook, the same as occurs in a few normal outlines:
occur, agree = it has occurred, it has occurred to me, it occurs to me, it has occurred to us
it is/has agreed, purchase agreement compare disagree discourse discourage Top of page L Hook
all = at all, at all costs, by all means, by all accounts but by all counts
Keep the L Hook on the En large so that it doesn't look like R Hook 'in our':
in all events, in all cases, in all circumstances, in all instances, in all respects
in all ways, in all their ways, in all other ways, on* all sides, on* all occasions *Here the short form for 'on' is not used, and the word is represented phonetically by stroke En. If you adopt these two phrases, you cannot then use them for 'in all sides' or 'in all occasions', both of which would be much less likely.
only = if only, it is/has only, we have only, I have only just, I am only speaking
it may only, can only be, I can only assume, will only be, my only objection
unless = unless we have, unless and until, until and unless, unless there is
fellow = fellow members, fellow students, fellow citizens, fellow creatures* *See Distinguishing Outlines List 1/creator creature curator Top of page N Hook on, own*, than, been: *adjective only, do not use for the verb
take on, taking on, carry on, carrying on, carried on, going on
your own, our own, their own, her own compare his own, my own, mine
more than, any/in more than, no more than, little more than, higher than, wider than, better than
bigger than, greater than, larger than, fewer than, lower than, smaller than
longer than, stronger than, sooner than, sharper than, poorer than, clearer than
further than, farther than, later than, no later than, quicker than There are several ways to represent 'been' and 'have been' in phrases, in addition to the normal Short Form: – Hook where convenient:
I have been, we have been, would not have been, they have been, there will have been
have been expecting, have been known, have been received, may have been, it has never been, has it ever been
we had been, already been, only been, recently been, definitely been, certainly been Compare these to similar outlines 'definitely not, certainly not' below – Full short form:
it has been, it has not been, he has been, she has been, there has been, you have been – Omit the N Hook on the short form 'been' to enable the next outline to join:
been received, been required, it has been said*, it has been delivered, it has been suggested *See also variations on this Phrasing 4/has to be said
she has been able to, he has been able to, which has been made, which have been made, you have been made – For 'have been' where the Bee joins better than the Vee, omit the 'have':
seems to have, seems to have been, must have, must have been
would have, would have been, note also they would have been where there is no advantage in omitting the 'have' See also Phrasing 3/would happen
– If you omit the 'have', don't omit the N hook on 'been' as well in the same phrase, because that would represent 'be':
it must have been, it must have been said compare it must be said
it would have been said compare it would be said Top of page N Hook with halving = not:
will not, I will not, you will not, it will not be, he will not be, which will not, they will not
they will not be, this will not, definitely not*, certainly not*, almost certainly not*
*Keep the halved Ell short, so that these do not look like 'definitely been' etc above
Note definitely not been, certainly not been where you cannot use the N Hook for 'been' as it is already used for the 'not'.
I am not, I am not quite sure, may not, you may not be, it may not be, they may not be, which may not See also Phrasing 6/Distinguishing Pairs/may might
you will not, you are not is possible but you are not in full is preferable, as it is less likely to be misread as 'you will not'. Are not on its own, or starting a phrase, should always be in full.
were not, you were not, or not, whether it is or not Note: whether or not
has it not, has it not been, is it not, would it not, would it not be
they are = they are not, and they are not, but they are not, for they are not, I think they are not The following are clearer in full, and this also enables them join better, making many other phrases possible:
are not, have not, was not, shall not
we shall not, I shall not, shall not be, shall not have, shall not find
we have not, they have not, you may have not, he may have not Where any halving would be invisible, write in full:
we are not, we were not, they were not, many were not
hand = on either hand compare on the other hand which also omits the R Top of page F/V Hook
of = out of, photo of, plenty of, quality of the, side of the, inside of the, member of the
rid of the, right of/off, route of, rate of interest, rate of exchange
state of affairs, state of things, top of the, group of the, pack of the, take care of
much of the, which of the, each of the, which of them, each of these, each of those
off = slip/sleep off, set off/stay off, get off, better off, paid off, take off, check off, log off
have = you have, you have not, you have been, for you have, do you have, which you have but when you have 'You' when tilted does not take this hook
that you have, who have, those who have not, those who have never been
ought to have, ought to have been, ought to have done, ought to have seen, which have but we have is clearer in full and needs to be able to join to many other outlines. Top of page Afternoon evening: keep the final hook clear, as these two are similar:
afternoon = Monday afternoon, yesterday afternoon
evening = Sunday evening, yesterday evening
this afternoon, that afternoon, this evening, tomorrow evening where the full form joins well 'Morning' is stroke M intersected
event = at all events, in which event, in such events Phrasing 5/in the event of
See also
effect = into effect, take effect, right effect 'Kt' can also stand for 'fact'/Phrasing 4 Omission
side-effect in full See Distinguishing Outlines List2/defect Top of page Part of, number of When 'part' is written with a halved Per stroke, it does not use the F/V Hook for 'of' because that would look too much like 'number of'. Instead, the 'of' is omitted:
part, part of, part of the but great part of, great part of the
small part of the, take part of the, latter part of the, major part of the
number, number of, number of the, great number of the, small number of the The 'of' can be omitted after 'number' to achieve a join, but only if it cannot be mistaken for 'part':
large number of cases but large number of men Where the word ends in S or Dot Ing, you can't use a final hook to represent a word in a phrase:
take on/taken, taken on, takes on, set off, sets off, setting off
parts of speech, numbers of people, numbering of people Circle S for 'as has is his us' can be added to the hook, because the normal order is to read the S last of all:
you have us/his, who have us/his, ought to have us/his, which have us/his, take of/off his, number of us/his, member of his
Advanced phrase head office also sounds the S last. In normal outlines you would never use a hook with Circle S if there was a vowel sounded between them e.g. Dave's Davis Top of page Shun Hook - Large:
ocean = Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Arctic Ocean See also Phrasing 4/Atlantic Coast
information = for your information, further information See also Phrasing 8 Intersections/communication The direction of Shun hook may change to balance the phrase's outline, as it does in normal outlines, and you may need to put in an occasional vowel sign to prevent errors in reading back:
section, in this section, in my section, occasion, on which occasion, on this occasion Shun Hook – Small: 'Association' is the textbook recommended use of the small shun hook. There are others available to choose from, and they need some thought as to the safest combinations in which to use them. They seem mostly interchangeable, i.e they could all make sense in the same sentence, so it would be better to settle on a few very common unvarying phrases for each of them, and so avoid misreadings:
association = political association, medical association, football association, Articles of Association*
*Note that the two S sounds are represented by one circle, as 'Articles' is always plural in this phrase
session = this session, next session Two S sounds represented by one circle
conversation = telephone conversation, confidential conversation, Skype conversation, Internet conversation* *The circle + small shun hook combination is never used on a halved or doubled stroke for normal outlines, only in a phrase where it represents a word.
taxation = direct taxation, indirect taxation See note above
season = summer season, autumn season
decision = final decision, financial decision, unanimous decision The following is a quicker alternative to the fuller phrase:
position = in a position, I am not in a position, untenable position* *See also Phrasing 5/in a position and Distinguishing Outlines List 4/undeniable untenable When used with a simple word like 'your' or 'their', which provides no context, extra care is needed. It is often helpful to write the first occurrence in full and use an abbreviation for subsequent occurrences within the same piece, so that you have the full form to refer back to:
your association/decision/conversation/position their association/decision/ conversation/position financial position/decision Out of context you have no way of knowing which is meant Top of page (b) Circles & Loops Circle S
= us, as, has, is, his. For simplicity, only one of these is shown in the text with each example, but you should vary these when you are practising them:
of us, to us, and is, should his, on his, but his, with us, when is, what is, would his
for us, take us, to give us, let us see, before us, above us
tell us, they want us, please inform us, please let us have, please let us know
as fast as, foster his, against us, just as, missed us
such as it is, inasmuch as, as near as possible, as many as, as far as
say = you can say that, we can say that, I would say that, we would say that, asked to say that
to say a few words, I am sorry to say that, very sorry to have to say that, to say the least 'Should' can be represented by the Circle S in a few phrases, which allows phrases to be made when the normal short form cannot be joined:
we should be, we should not be, we should have Do not use the circle for 'should' where it could be read for 'is':
it should be* it is to be, it has to be, if it should be, if it is to be, if it has to be *The short form joins well here anyway
With N Hook: at once, upon us, depend upon us
With R Hook: as per, as promised, as permitted, as directed As with forming normal outlines, an initial Circle S may change its direction when it comes in the middle of a phrase:
it is, it is important, please take, please make, speaker, Mr Speaker
certain, to certain, secretary, general secretary, Home Secretary In the last two examples, the Circle S has become medial and therefore its direction cannot be thought of as signifying an R Hook. After 'this, these, those' the original direction is kept, as being more legible that reversing the circle:
this man, this may have, these matters However, in single-word outlines the circle is written outside, see Theory 19 Suffixes General/change of curve direction. Here Circle S replaces stroke Ess in order to gain a convenient phrase:
aside = set aside but not in take aside compare take sides Top of page Circle Ses Medially, mostly replacing two Circle S signs:
this is, this is the, this is it, this is no doubt, this is where, this has been, this has to be/this is to be/this subject S + S in separate words is often pronounced as one S, but Pitman's Shorthand generally shows both, to aid legibility:
this city*, this statement, enclosed statement Note state statement *Same outline as 'this is it' above, insert final vowel if felt necessary
this century, this side, this suggestion, this circumstance, these circumstances
it is certain, it is certainly, there is certainly, which is certainly
there is as much, there is something, there is sometimes, there is certainly
it must seem, it is simple, because it is sometimes compare because it sometimes
it is said, it is seen, it is soon, it is something, it is someone, it is such
it is sufficient, it is suggested, it is satisfactory, it is satisfying, it is supposed
sometimes seems, for his suggestion, for his sake compare for the sake of
it appears as though compare it appears that, because such, will you please send, yes sir, which is as follows
Omitting T in the middle: most serious, most suitable, most satisfactory, almost certain, there is still
system = school system, heating system, plumbing system, writing system If Ses cannot be written, it may be acceptable to only use one S, as long as the sense remains clear:
chairman's statement, chairman's speech (Unlikely to be 'chairman's peach', but if it was, you would write separate outlines) Can't use Ses Circle if there are three S's:
this is/themselves, this satisfactory but this is satisfactory Top of page Ses initially Large Circle at the beginning is normally Sway, but the following phrases are common enough to be worthwhile using it for S + S:
as soon as, as said, as satisfactory, as suggested Alone: In longhand terms, the following are phrases because they are two words, but in shorthand they are counted as short forms because they do not consist of outlines joined together:
1. as/has followed by any other: as, has, is, his 2. is/his followed by any other: as, has, is, his
as is the/as has the --- his is the/is as the --- as has been --- as is being --- as is known See also Phrasing 6/Distinguishing pairs/as is, as we Circle Sway As with normal outlines, Sway Circle is only used at the beginning of an outline or phrase: As we:
as we are, as we can, as we cannot be, as we may, as we have, as we have not*
*In full, not halved
as we have said, as we have been, as we have been there, as we have received, as we shall be, as we wish
as we know, as we think, as we think there is, as we do, as we generally, as we just
as we do not, as we did not, as we do not think, as we do not have, as we cannot, as we need
as we trust, as we promised, as we produced, as we permitted compare as promised, as produced, as permitted As well, as will:
as well/as will, as well as, as well as can be, as well as our, as well as most
as will be seen, as will be appreciated, as will have been Sway is not used if it cannot join:
as we understand*, as we would, as we went, as we considered, as we instructed *The Ses could possibly join, like 'as we need' above, but there is not enough room for it to be clear. Sway is not used if the outline already starts with Circle S – the large circle signifies SW, and cannot also include S that follows:
as we said, as we stated, as we started, as we suggest, as we supposed Sway is not used within phrases, just as it is not used in the middle of a normal outline:
as we can but as soon as we can, as soon as we are able, you may as well Top of page Stee Loop Stee Loop can remain in the phrase only if it makes a good join (but see also Phrasing 4/Omitting consonant for examples of where the T is left out) :
last year, last few years, in the last few days, just now, just in case, best wishes*, first time *Note upward Ish for convenience
at first, at first appearance, very first, February first, at first hand but first hand, first thing
With N Hook = next = Monday next, Wednesday next, October next, February next
As with normal outlines, an initial Stee Loop may change when it becomes medial:
foundation, stepping, stone = foundation stone, stepping stone
state, stated, statement = to state, they state, they stated
we stood, we stayed*, we state, we stated, I regret to state compare single outlines: stay, stayed/staid, stood *It is prudent to write 'stayed' with full strokes in the phrase, as the meaning is similar to 'stood' and a vowel would not distinguish it, because that would look like 'state'.
present state, in all states, also state, his own statement, recent statement, in that statement
stock, stick = in stock, walking stick Top of page (c) Halving
it = if it, if it is, as if it were, from it, from its, till it, till it can
I think it was (compare I thought it was), I wish it to be, I wish it would be, I wish it were not, depend upon it, make it clear
in which it is/has, in which it has been, by which it may, under which it would, with which it would, will it but will it not* *This is more distinctive than halving the Wel for 'it' and adding the normal outline 'not', but if you have already written the phrase 'will it' you should then continue with the normal outline for 'not'
to = able to, I am able to, you are able to, we are able to, you were able to, unable to, he is unable to See also Phrasing 6/Distinguishing Pairs/unable
out = set out, get out, brought out, carried out, ride out, inside out
fade out, hide out, hold/held out, help out, drop out, wipe out, cop out but throughout It is clear from the above that this will not work for past tenses that already end in 'ded' or 'ted', but for 'point out' and 'pointed out' it is worth having special phrases, as they are very common expressions:
point out, pointed out* in full it would be pointed out compare tout trout
*this in effect says 'pointed ow' (i.e. omitting the last T) with the diphthong being treated as a separate item, like the F/V Hook in 'part of' Halving to represent T in the next syllable:
some time (= 'sumt-ime'), for some time to come, at some time or other, at the same time, at one time
at all times, my time, more time, lunch time, at which time, at such times
modern times, proper time, reasonable time, spare time, extra time
valuable time, available time, before time, considerable time, most suitable time
from time to time, from time immemorial
The following has three versions with varying degrees of abbreviation, the first one is textbook, the other two are more advanced:
for some considerable time, for some considerable time, for some considerable time
These are clearer in full: little time, several times, in due time compare in day time See also Phrasing 3/Imp/for some time past
The T of 'time' is omitted in these: short time ago, second time, hard times and the halving is considered as doing duty for both D and T sounds.
text = my text, the words of my text, from my text* *These phrases were first created before mobile phone texting existed, and originally would have referred to the text of a letter or report.
Single words that do not use halving may be able to do so within a phrase, because there is extra information in the outline, thus keeping it legible:
afraid, we are afraid, right, right angle See also Phrasing8 Intersections/right angle
date, earliest possible date, brought, brought forward
Compare the nouns: bet alphabet boat lifeboat rate birth-rate You cannot use halving to represent a word if it is already in use in the outline, or if the basic outline is avoiding halving (as in 'edit'):
fit it, fitted it, watched it, doubt it, doubted it, edit it Top of page
(d) Doubling = other, there, their, dear (For convenience the text captions show only one of the pair there/their) See also Phrasing 6/Distinguishing Pairs/N+ther The rules for doubling are the same as for single words i.e. do not double a single straight stroke that has no attachments:
be there but been there, we can be there; out there but take out their, out of their, take out of their A final S is read after the doubling, as in normal outlines:
catch their, in which there is, catches their, catching their
enjoy their, enjoys their, enjoying their
acknowledge their, acknowledges their, acknowledging their
hope there, hope there is, hopes there is, hoping there is Other:
some other, by some other means, in other directions, in other ways
one or other, one or another compare one or the other which omits the R
somehow or other, somehow or another, for some reason or other 'any other, no other' omit the R Hook, so that they do not clash with any of the above. Vocalise the 'no' when it is out of position within a phrase:
any other, no other, for any other, for no other, every other way Top of page There/their:
upon there, help their, wipe their, above their, cannot be there
into there, out of their, get there, carried on their, get rid of their
take their, make their way, practise their, how can there be
seek their opinion, in connection with their*, bigger than their, we had gone there *This combination of doubling and Shun is only used in phrasing, never in an ordinary outline.
in which there, in which there are, which have their, enjoy their, engage their, acknowledge their
join their, imagine their, if there was, I do not know if there is but for there was, for there is to distinguish them.
I have there, will have their, over there, from their last letter
more than their, whenever there is, whatever there is, wherever there is
wherefore there is (Note wherefore), I think there is, I think there was
we think there may, then their, then there is, through their, through their own
although there has been, though there have been, though there was, though there were
I was there, he was there, when he was there, I am sure there is, be sure there is, shall there, shall there be
I know there is, taking their, making their way, including their
as a rule there is, until there has been, will there, will there be, while there is
follow their instructions, or there/order, or there is/orders, hear/here their compare here and there
in their, in their case, in their view, in their interest
in their opinion, in their hands, in their time, in their own way Top of page Dear:
my dear sir, my dear madam, my dear friends, my very dear friend Therefore: If the original form joins well, that should be used:
I have therefore, we think therefore, will therefore If the original does not join well, use doubling for the 'there' part:
I shall therefore, we shall therefore, I was therefore compare I was there for a week i.e. 'therefore', whether normal outline or in a phrase, is not used to represent 'there for' You cannot use doubling to create a phrase, if the outline for the word is already doubled or halved:
after their, further their, order their, and therefore there
I thought there would be, it is not their, we have considered their, we have received their
Top of page (e) Suffixes Many suffixes are words in their own right and these can be usefully combined in phrases. They are written in proximity, the same as when they are used as suffixes, and not joined or intersected:
ability = best of my ability, best of our ability, best of their ability, in his ability
reality = in reality, facing reality, artificial reality
mentality = high mentality, low mentality, superior mentality, criminal mentality
of this mentality, average mentality, of such mentality but of such a mentality
amount = certain amount This is copying the suffix '-ment' that omits the M
logical = it is logical, it is not logical, it may be logical, can be done logically but full outline for it is illogical
ship, shipment = many ships, abandoned the ship, with this shipment, received the shipment
fullness = in the fullness of time As a suffix, it is spelt '-fulness' f) R forms
R can be represented by Ray, Ar or R Hook, and may change from the form used in the basic outline:
were = we were, they were, these were, if it were, if any were
war = world war, man-of-war/man o' war
or = one or more, two or more, at or about compare on or about, out and about See also Phrasing 5 Omission/or
Sir = Sir Christopher, Sir Charles, Sir David, Sir James
dare = I dare not, I dare say
door = out of doors Note also: outdoor, indoor
appear, appeared = it would appear, to appear, he appears, it appears that, they appeared
power = power down, power tools also power-house, power-station, powerpoint/Powerpoint which are compound words Top of page
(g) L forms L can be represented by upward Ell, downward Ell or L Hook. In a phrase, an outline with upward Ell may change to downward to achieve a better join:
else less = anything else, nothing is less*, less than, any less than, not** less than *See also Phrasing 6/Essential Vowels/else less separately
**Insert the vowel in 'not' or write it
longer = it is no longer, any longer, no longer than
elsewhere = where else, somewhere else
anywhere else, nowhere else, everywhere else
like = anything like, nothing like, something like
I would like, I would like to know
let = let us, let us say, let us see, let us know, please let us know, let us have, let you have
last, letter = your letter, your last letter, this letter, in our last letter
line = in line, for this line compare clothesline
will = he will, they will, you will, this will
sale, old = for sale, this sale, years old Top of page
(h) H forms H can often be safely omitted from common words in a phrase:
hope = I hope, we hope that, we hoped that, let us hope that, would hope, we would hope
home = at home, at home and abroad*, at home and overseas* *These two do not need the vowel, as they have more information in them
house = of the house, by the house, in the house, for the house, lower house* *Dot Hay and vowel shown for reference
in this house*, upper house, custom house 'housing' is clearer in full: in the housing market *Large Circle used to represent two small circles, compare 'Theory 12 Hay/clotheshorse'
history = for the history, in the history of the
happen = it has happened, what has happened, would happen*, would have been** *Dot Hay and vowel shown for reference. **See also Phrasing 2/have been
freehold, leasehold = freehold property, freehold land, leasehold premises Tick omitted:
hear hardly = hear hear, there is hardly
whom = from whom (insert vowel) compare from me, from him Top of page
(i) W forms W can be represented by Way, Wel or W Semicircle or omitted:
was = this was, that was, never was, if it was, another was
were = nor were they, when were/when we are, if that were W Semicircle omitted:
such were, such as were, you were, if he were, if he were not, who were
as it were, which were, there were, those which were, how were, I wish there were 'what were' needs both outlines in full, because if you left out the second semicircle sign, the phrase would be identical to 'were':
what, were = what were also I know what were Omitting the hook on Wel:
will = I will, you will, if he will, they will, she will
as it will be, such will, such as will be, for it will have, if it will, that will not
those will, this will, these will, this will not, as long as will
But the hook joins well in: we will, where will, and will, anything will, something will be Do not use the plain Ell for the noun 'will' (both meanings: force of mind, and legal document) or the verb (meaning to bequeath):
Their will to succeed is very strong. If you will him the house, he will be glad.
This Will is not signed. Their Will was in the drawer.
Only exception: last Will and Testament Vowel helpful The noun Will, referring to the legal document, is often written with a capital letter to prevent misreading and misunderstanding.
well = very well*, it may well be, it may very well be, he may well be *Vowel advised, see Phrasing 6/Distinguishing pairs/well low ill Top of page
you may well, you may as well, it is well known, so well
Always insert the
vowel if it helps
war = of thewar, throughout the war, during the war, before the war, civil war
wear = evening wear compare knitwear sportswear
wire = this wire, live wire, earth wire
word = any word, no word, many words, in his own words, few words
following words, in those words, in these words, Holy Word, God's Word
world = this world, another/in their world, civilised world
all the world, in the world/any world, all over the world
work = of the work*, for the work, with the works, this work for reference
worse = any worse, no worse, no worse than
worth, worthy = not worth, it is worth, local worthies
*Vowel shown
to be worth, worthwhile, be worthwhile, not worthwhile With, when, what, would:
with the, with us/his, with you, with me, with it, with which, with them, with their
when the, when is/has the, when do/had*, when they, when that, when you, when he, when we, when would *If necessary, you can indicate that it is 'had' by inserting Dot Hay and the A vowel, see Phrasing 7/had not
what the, what is/his/has, what is/has the, what is/has your, what you/what would, what can, what had, what do, what have/whatever
would the, would you, would he, would be, would it, would she, would have
it would, which would, you would, he would, she would, I would, we would, they would
Kway is usually used for K+W spoken together, but is useful to extend the short form 'can':
can we, can we have, can we follow, can we say, can we please, can we permit
likewise* likewise (non-dictionary alternative) compare lukewarm* *These two are the dictionary outlines Top of page
(j) Imp In the following, Imp is used for M+P and M+B even though the sounds are in different syllables:
for some time past, for some considerable time past compare tempest, lamp-post
legislative assembly = legislative assembly (k) Non-use of short form Where the original short form outline does not join:
called = so-called*, was called, what is called compare miscalled *Vowel helpful
first = first rate, at first sight, at first, at first hand compare first hand, first class, first quality
from = from the first, from first to last
hand either other = on the other hand, on either hand compare on their own, they are not
our = in our OR nor, in our way, in our opinion, it is in our interests
in our world, in our reply, in our hands
are = they are, and they are, for they are*, if they are* *See also Phrasing 6/Distinguishing pairs/if for
'Much' in some phrases is written with the stroke Em to enable it to join:
much = so much, how much, to/too much, was as much, there is much, very much
Compare so large, how large, very large
more = much more, much more than, very much more than, so much more than
herewith = enclose herewith, I have enclosed herewith, send herewith These are safer with the W vowel shown, to distinguish from 'them', but still quicker than separate outlines.
what = I know what, have what we can, that is what, somewhat* *Vowels shown but not essential. This is semicircle W for 'wo-' vowel, rather than the short form 'what', note also the Dot Hay against it.
would = we would, I would, this would, some would, many would, if it would
was = this was, if it was, I think it was the, why was the
word = this word/would, these words, several words, in other/in their words, many words
my own words, in our own words, satisfactory words
year = this year*, many years, New Year**, another year *This awkward change of direction is avoided wherever possible, and not used in basic outlines, but this phrase is still quicker than separate outlines. **Keep the Yay+Ray stroke long, as this is similar to the contracted phrase for 'New York' (N+Yay)
yard = many yards, several yards, back yard, coal yard
Use the short form if it joins well: two yards/words, three yards/words, hundred yards/words a) Omitting a consonant P
ship builder B
on behalf of
past year, past experience, post office, I trust that
next door, next time, last time, your last letter
best time, best terms*, best quality, best price
*Compare this with 'business terms' below
West End, West Indies, must say, must have
must not, must never, must take compare mistake
must also*, must receive, most likely *The joined first vowel of 'also' is omitted in phrases
most probable/probably, in most cases, most excellent
most desirable, most undoubtedly, most necessary
take steps, necessary steps, at cost price, lowest price
better still, medical student, shorthand student, college student
critical stage, initial stages, used to be, used to have
at the earliest moment, at the earliest opportunity, at the last minute The short form 'to be' can be 'borrowed' to cover any word that begins with the same sound and which is normally written on the line. Writing through the line signifies the 'oo' vowel whilst omitting the T:
to be, to begin, to behave, to belong
to being, to behold, to beware compare to be aware which needs the vowel sign K Top of page
few weeks, past few weeks, several weeks, many weeks F
in fact (compare in effect), well-known fact
it is a well-known fact, as a matter of fact, notwithstanding the fact 'Kt' not joined:
of the fact, because of the fact, to the fact that, due to the fact that, in view of the fact, lose sight of the fact
owing to the fact, significant fact, significance of the fact, in spite of the fact, in the light of the fact
in point of fact OR in point of fact, is that a fact also that is a fact, fact of the matter, from the fact that
telegraph wire N
yours sincerely*, yours most sincerely*, foreign affairs, Foreign Secretary *Downward Ell for the sake of lineality, despite the following vowel
has been considered, has been made, has been mentioned* *See Phrasing 8 Intersections/mentioned
has been received, has been said compare has to be said, is to be said
between them, between this, between which, between now
one more, once more*, once again *The Circle S written medially has to go in this direction, therefore the direction cannot be taken as indicating an N Hook.
one thing, one hand, one question
one another, on one side, one way, one instance
one fourth, one fifth, one tenth Do not omit the N hook of 'one' if a past-tense verb follows, as that would be confused with 'we'
we understood, we knew, we needed, we went
Keep the hook where helpful: one point, one of my, one of our, one of us/his, one and all
generally speaking, general secretary, general election but election
human character, human life, home life
compare human mind, human kind
take place/taken place, taken place* compare takes place *The first outline is textbook and covers both 'take' and 'taken', the second outline is a suggestion that omits the L Hook instead of the N Hook, to provide a distinction.
L Top of page
first place*, feel sure, long life *See also Phrasing 5/Omission/first place R
much more, any other, no other, many other, than the other
from the other, and other conclusions, on the other, on the other side of the, on the other hand Compare:
some other, some of them, any of them, many of them
another of them, in the other, for the other
square = square feet, square yards, square inches
square miles, square metres/meters, square deal
square root is clearer full and square meals in full so it does not look like 'school meals' W
last week, last weekend, this week, next week* *Vowel shown for reference
previous week, six weeks, six weeks' time Top of page
(b) Omitting a repeated sound Omitting a repeated sound, where the two are slurred together:
animal life, social life, personal life
some measure, Prime Minister, in other respects
little longer, still longer, upside-down* *Compare this with up and down/Phrasing5
break cover but take cover to distinguish it from take over*, over *Vr is flipped so that it joins well
Atlantic Coast, Pacific Coast, Baltic Coast
See also Phrasing 2/Shun Hook/Atlantic
Omitting repeated stroke, even though the sounds are pronounced separately:
take exception, make exception, zero rated, satisfactory reply, satisfactory record, satisfactory response
satisfactory reason, satisfactory result, better results, poor results, hardly likely,
personal knowledge, personal injury, final analysis, it is considered, income and expenditure With these, it is the shorthand marks that would have been repeated, rather than the phrase having two identical sounds in succession.
family life, seem to imagine, technical college, technical college Some of these can also be used in other phrases:
making exceptions, hardly possible, technical terms, technical phrases
acceptable results, reliable results, get results, will result, it will result Bigger and bigger, etc:
bigger and bigger, better and better, deeper and deeper, higher and higher, later and later
more and more, larger and larger, lower and lower, faster and faster, nearer and nearer
quicker and quicker, worse and worse, years and years, such and such, round and round, but around and around See also Phrasing 5/door to door
Word + or + negative:
directly or indirectly, correctly or incorrectly, real or unreal, true or untrue
known or unknown, willing or unwilling, sold or unsold, claimed or unclaimed Top of page
(c) Omitting a syllable or part of word
additional costs, additional expense, additional experience additional
additional work, additional information
bishop Rev Bishop See also Phrasing 8 Intersections/Bishop
British Isles, British people, British Museum
business business letter, business man, business experience, business school
business matters, business terms*, business-like manner *Compare this with 'best terms' above
business relations, business lines, lines of business , line of business See also Phrasing 8 Intersections/business
con- com-
income tax compare becoming shortcoming forthcoming
The Con Dot or proximity can be omitted and the outline just joined on, for very common phrases only:
I will consider, you may consider, to consider the, we have considered consider consideration considered considerate
cannot be considered, for consideration, for your consideration, great deal of consideration
carefully considered, careful consideration, very considered, very considerate See also Phrasing 5 Omission/into for similar 'consider' phrases
concern concerned
your concern, I am concerned, they are concerned, we are concerned, you are concerned
we have concluded, I concluded, came to the conclusion conclude concluded conclusion
and in conclusion, logical conclusion, my own conclusion
Top of page
satisfactory conclusion, other conclusions, necessary conclusion
unexpected consequence, necessary consequence, unforeseen consequences consequence consequences
convenient as soon as convenient See also Phrasing 8 Intersections/convenient
counsel for the defence, counsel for the defendant, counsel for the plaintif See also Phrasing 8 Intersections/council
'ex-' words = Although the X has been underlined, only the Kay is omitted, the Circle S remains:
expense expenses
personal expense, necessary expense, heavy expenses, medical expenses
college examinations, medical examination, medical exam examination exam
experience personal experience, in our experience, recent experience
extent to a great extent, to a certain extent but to a large extent
favourable circumstances, more favourable
Honourable Member, Honourable Senator, Honourable Gentleman*,
Right Honourable Gentleman *Write the phrase on the line for 'gentlemen'
inspector building inspector, hospital inspector, inspector general
government inspector You could condense this further to gov+spector
railway inspector
instruct instruction* *Short Form
I am instructing*, I have been instructed, you will instruct *Through the line because of the first vowel of 'instructing' even though the 'in' part has been omitted from the shorthand.
your instructions, further instructions Inserting the dash vowel helps to distinguish 'instruction' from considerations above, which looks similar.
musical instrument, stringed instrument, string instrument, surgical instrument -ly
extremely pleased, extremely concerned, extremely sorry, I am extremely sorry* *This last one also omits the Kay
distinctly, distinctly understood, strictly speaking, broadly speaking, abundantly clear
absolutely certain, absolutely sure, absolutely necessary
Top of page
perfectly sure, perfectly clear, perfectly satisfactory
pressure high pressure, low pressure, water pressure, blood pressure
Your Majesty, Her Majesty, His Majesty, Their Majesties
in this manner, satisfactory manner, reasonable manner, and in like manner
all manner, all manner of ways, such a manner, in such a manner as to* *Using the short form 'to' at the end of a phrase is generally avoided, but here the meaning is clear
most encouraging manner, in the same manner compare for the same honour See also Phrasing 6/Distinguishing Pairs/manner
this month, next month, during the month, end of the month
end of this month, six months, six months' time, six months ago* *Vowel helpful but not essential
See also Phrasing 8 Intersections/month
three months, two month but many months to keep it different from the plain outline months
objection I have no objection, there are no objections, we have another objection J-Shun standing alone is also the optional contraction for 'generation'
possible possibly it is possible, it is not possible, it was not possible, it is just possible
as soon as possible, as long as possible, all we possibly can
as much as possible, as early as possible, as quickly as possible, as good as possible If the speaker says the abbreviated word 'poss' then write it as a separate vocalised outline:
poss, not poss, if poss
personal property, private property, freehold property, lost property This is not so immediately obvious or distinctive as other phrases, so keep for very common word groupings and only if you are likely to use it frequently: reason
for this reason, there is no reason why, very good reason, every reason to believe
Don't use this for plural 'reasons' as that would look like 'sense':
good sense, good reasons, good reason, what were the reasons If you write 'reason' in full, you can still omit 'the' where convenient:
what is the reason, what is the reason, what was the reason, what was the reason Top of page
I am in receipt of, we are in receipt of your letter, I acknowledge receipt of the
receive received
I shall be glad to receive, expect/expected to receive, we have received, has been received, not yet received
with reference to, with reference to the, with reference to your enquiry, with reference to this application
in reference to, in reference to the but in the face of the should be written in full to distinguish it.
as regards the, with regard to the, in regard to the, in regard to these matters but in full for as far as as regards
in relation to the, business relations, industrial relations, normal relations, friendly relations
reply replied
in reply to, in reply to your letter, your reply, we will reply, I have replied
report in my report, in our report, annual report, school report, medical report
I am requested to send you, I am requested to send you, I have been requested
to send you The Circle S is doing duty for both S's in the above
you are requested to inform us*, you will be requested, I am requesting *Better not to omit the 're-' in this one, so that the first Ray is properly read as 'are'.
very successful, most successful
Do not omit the L in 'successful' if standing alone, as that would look too much like 'successive'. Keep to very common phrases where 'successive' would not make sense.
successful, successfully, successive, successively* *Vowel advised
Compare also careful, carefully and careful/carefully optional contraction
under review
for the year under review, during the year under review, at the end of the year under review, period under review
movement upward movement, downward movement, sideways movement, Top of page
*See Distinguishing Outlines List 4/sideways sidewards
standing order, existing circumstances, stepping stone Any new phrase that omit '-ing' needs careful consideration before adoption:
leading question, lead-in question, lead question
leading article, lead article, working man, workman
canoe club, canoeing club
Although there is only one instance of most of the following, you can use
the principles to form new similar phrases:
registered letter, postal order, governor* general, Catholic* religion* *See also Contractions Optional for these
all of a sudden, passenger train, rules and regulations, trade regulations, headquarters
social security, social security system, husband and wife, last but not least
Great Britain, be that as it may, vice versa, viva voce Top of page
Intersections should not be used haphazardly as a way of avoiding consulting the dictionary and learning the correct outline, but in a difficult moment a hasty untried intersection or part of an outline is better than leaving a gap. STR FULL OUTLINE INTERSECTION OKE
party* political party, birthday party, Christmas party, office party
Proximity only:
council policy, insurance policy
per cent 5 per cent, 10 per cent per annum per annum
* 'Per annum' on its own should be written in full, as the single Pee stroke is allocated to 'per cent'.
Professor Smith, professor of music, music professor
to make application, many applications, enclosed application
corporal punishment, school punishment, necessary punishment
heating apparatus, electrical apparatus, scientific apparatus PPs purpose
for the purpose, for the purposes, for these purposes, for those purposes
any other purpose, primary purpose, for many purposes This version shows two P strokes for 'purpose', as that is clearer than a single one. It should always be intersected, not just joined, so that it is not mistaken for 'possible'
superintende chief superintendent, railway superintendent nt
superintendent of works, superintendent of police
for some period of time, during this period of time, various periods of time period of time B
bank* national bank, bank charges, river bank, Thames Embankment bill
Parliamentary Bill, Finance Bill* * 'finance' can also be pronounced 'fye-' so you could write this outline above the line
Top of page
Bishop of York, Bishop of London (See Contractions Optional for archbishop)
business* daily business, business contact, any business,
any other business See Phrasing 4/Omission/bus iness for other joined versions
printing business, terms of business, business references, business practice T
attention* for your attention, paying attention, immediate attention, careful attention, undivided attention
draw your attention, draw your immediate attention to the matter, call attention to the matter
urgent attention, my attention has been called, your best attention Tr
alternative there is no alternative, do we have any
alternative, we have no alternative
alternative sources, alternative energy, alternative plans Use full outline for 'alternate' to avoid ambiguity. alternative = a second choice, option or possibility available alternate = every other one, every second one This comes from Latin 'alter' = other, one of two Suggested intersection, based on the common longhand abbreviation 'Tel' :
telephone message, answer the telephone, telephone call Suggested intersection:
Tv/ Tf television
television screen, television signal, television cable, cable television
If the person says 'TV' or 'telly' then you would write that in full:
television aerial but TV* screen, telly *Suggest separate T and V strokes, clearer than joining them.
traffic motorway traffic, traffic warden, traffic problems D
department* sales department, training department, Department of the Environment
department manager, departmental manager Do not use the intersection for 'departmental' as the meanings are almost identical
company director, director's report
board of directors Attach, if intersecting is not practical
Use full outline for 'director' if you think you might misread it as 'doctors'
dividend declare a dividend, long division, division of labour division
Top of page
cellular division, political division, first division, second division
charge* electrical charge, free of charge, in charge, take charge Chancery* *This was included when intersections were first introduced, as it was assumed reporters would very often be reporting government business.
extra charges, surcharge, Chancery report
journal daily journal, medical journal, financial journal, copy of the journal See Contractions Optional for 'journalist'
engineer electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, civil engineer
mechanical engineering department, electrical engineer but electrical knowledge* *Don't use plain N-J as an abbreviation for 'engineer', as that is the short form for 'knowledge'. In fact, the latter is not a good phrase, as its components are not immediately recognisable, and is only shown here as a warning.
manufacturing company, ballet company, company report
from the company, of the company, to the
company, in the company capital
county council, city council*, council of reference captain* *Choice of full outline or optional contraction
capital city*, capital expenditure, capital gains *Compare the position of the intersections in 'city council' and 'capital city'
Captain Jones, Captain Grant, Captain Pitt This intersection best only used with personal names
colonel The pronounced R of 'colonel' is shown in the shorthand instead of the first L of the spelling
broadcasting corporation, publishing corporation
Colonel James, Lieutenant Colonel See also Phrasing 2/corps where the Kr is joined,
not intersected As K = captain, and Kr = colonel, this leaves 'corporal' having to be written in full, although a non-textbook suggestion might be to intersect Kr+P = 'Corp'.
company limited
Speedy Company Limited, Design Company Limited If you wanted to signify the shortened version 'Co Ltd' you could vocalise the Kay.
government* local government, government policy If necessary, expand to 'gov' G+V to distinguish from 'company'.
company report, government report 'Gov' is a good non-textbook substitute, quicker than the full outline, and more reliable than the Gay intersection. 'Gov' alone is also the short form for govern/governed.
Take care with:
United States Government, United States of America
Here again, 'gov' would be more reliable, or you could place the intersection through or above the Ses Circle (non-textbook suggestion)
at the beginning, in the beginning, small beginnings
at the beginning of the year, beginning of the book, from the beginning, from the beginning to the end, from beginning to end Please note 'from the beginning' has been corrected with the 'tick the' (27 Sep 2013)
application form, necessary forms, we have just formed form* formed*
in one form or another, some other form
yours faithfully, faithfully yours
official papers, official reason, official opening federal
federal reserve, federal offices, federal army = You need to be perfectly sure of the context, because 'official' would make sense in all of these.
Top of page
call forth, go forth, come forth See also forth Phrasing2/forth
valuation short form
very low valuation, valuation of the property, valuation department* *The second version is quicker
convenience* it will be convenient, it is convenient, if convenient* convenient, convenient time
at your convenience, at your earliest convenience, public convenience Don't use this intersection through 'not' 'no' or 'any' because that would clash with 'inconvenient':
inconvenient*, it is inconvenient, it is not convenient, it is no convenience *Contraction
local authority, military authority, we have the authority
railway authority
many months, for months, few months
some months, some months ago, summer months
month of March, twelve months, in a month's time
from month to month, several months, seven months See also Phrasing 4 Omission/month where the stroke Ith is joined
musical society, agricultural society, drama society
society of musicians, musicians' society*, building society, artists' society *Writing the intersection alongside makes it clear that that word comes last.
scientific research, scientific papers, scientific experiments
government of Australia, Northern Australia, Western Australia Sn
Australian English, Australian customs, Australian government
Ish+ s
life assurance, life assurance policy compare life insurance
trade mark, water mark, dirty marks, mark of respect
financial markets, market conditions,
farmers' market, cattle market
manager* this morning, yesterday morning, tomorrow morning, Monday morning See minister
also Phrasing 2/afternoon evening
Major sales manager, general manager, team manager, club manager America
Minister for Defence, Education Minister, minister of religion
Major Brown, Pipe Major, Drum Major 'Major General' should be in written full, as an intersection would be the same as 'general manager' above, and writing the stroke Em over the top would look too much like 'majority'. See also sergeant major in Contractions Optional
South America, North and South America but United States of America
above-mentioned, I have mentioned, it was mentioned, it has been mentioned
Top of page
it should be mentioned, before-mentioned, afore-mentioned s+M
similar* similar reasons, similar reaction, very similar, or similar Must be clearly intersected, and not written adjacent, so it does not look like 'some' or 'same'.
same reasons, some reasons These could also be phrased See also Contractions Optional/dissimilar
I will enquire, we have enquired, we have made enquiries
for your enquiry, in reply to your enquiry
enquire enquired enquiry (also spelled inquiry, with third place dot)
national newspapers, national affairs, national production
But national importance in full, compare unimportant
heavy industry, steel industry, iron and steel industry*, rural industry *The Circle S looks looped, but that is because it is written between curved strokes. A Stee Loop would never occupy such a position.
insurance* insurance papers, insurance policy
life insurance, necessary insurances, fire insurance company, third party insurance N+S hun communicatio n in/any communication, regular communication, communication system, communication difficulties Must be clearly intersected, and not written adjacent, so that it does not look like the short form 'information'.
regular information, information system See also Phrasing 2/information
Ing angle sharp angle, wide angle, obtuse angle
right angle, at right angles, angle of attack See also Phrasing 2/right angle
limited* limited company, And Sons Limited, Dance Company Limited liberal
Liberal candidate, Liberal manifesto, Liberal Party
lieutenant (English and American pronunciations respectively)
As these two words above have opposite meanings, it is probably best to use the 'liberal' intersection for political terms only. Non-textbook suggestion: for greater safety you could interesect L+B instead.
Lieutenant Brown compare Lord Brown Best only used with a personal name
I have arranged, make arrangements, will you please arrange the matter
arrange* arranged* arrangement*
necessary arrangements, formal arrangements, wedding arrangements
I will require, you may require, we have required
require* required* I know the requirements, their requirement* requirements, they are required, they are
railway station, railway carriage, railway lines, railway authority* *See also authority above
royal family, royal throne, royal jewels Don't use this for 'royal carriage', as it may be misread 'railway carriage'
The 'already' intersection is best used attached to a following verb:
we have already seen, we have already done, it has already been
which is already being, I have already
found, I have already said
I have already referred*, I have already received* compare I have referred, I have received *Note the intersected Ray represents 'already' and not the R of 'referred' or 'received'
Top of page
best of my recollection, best of our recollection, best of your recollection
referring to your letter, referring to your call, referring to my recent report
conservative estimate, conservative figure, conservative total
s+R ay
Conservative Party Hay
Wa y
Hay, Way and Wel, like all strokes, can be used for any term that you are dealing with on a regular basis within a particular field of work/interest. These few suggestions are given to illustrate the general method, but
you would not use them in a shorthand exam as there would be insufficient context and reading back would be approaching guesswork:
We l
hypodermic needle, hydraulic pump, hydrogen peroxide, helicopter pilot
walking club, wedding dress, weather forecast, welfare support Yay
yield higher yield, average yield, regular yield, yield per annum united
unanimous unanimously United Nations, United Dairy Company Limited See Contractions Optional for 'United Kingdom, United States'
carried unanimously, unanimous vote, unanimous decision* *See also Phrasing 2/unanimous As the meaning is similar to 'united', only use for well-known 'unanimous' phrases.
One offs leader of the opposition, speaking from memory, vote of thanks
bona fide, in the fullness of time*, pro forma *Not to be confused with for the first time/Phrasing 5
public library, hire purchase, by return of post
Top of page
House of Commons, House of Lords, in the House of Commons, in the House of Lords Note that these do not show the final S
  • Author : Amity Shlaes
  • Release Date : 25 April 2012
  • Publisher : Random House
  • Genre : Business & Economics
  • Pages : 256 pages
  • ISBN 13 : 9780307819338

The Greedy Hand PDF Free Download For Windows 7

Download or read book entitled The Greedy Hand written by Amity Shlaes and published by Random House online. This book was released on 25 April 2012 with total page 256 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: The Greedy Hand is an illuminating examination of the culture of tax and a persuasive call for reform, written by one of the nation's leading policy makers, Amity Shlaes of The Wall Street Journal. The father of the modern American state was an obscure Macy's department store executive named Beardsley Ruml. During World War II, he devised the plan for withholding taxes from your paycheck, thereby laying in place a system that allows the hand of government to reach into your wallet and take what it wants. Today, taxes make up more than a third of our economy, the highest level in history outside war. We live in the nation revolutionary father Thomas Paine foresaw when he wrote of 'the Greedy Hand of government thrusting itself into every corner of industry.' This book is a cultural examination of the way taxes influence our behavior, how they force us into an arbitrary system that punishes families and individual enterprise. Amity Shlaes unveils the hidden perversities of our lifelong tax experience: how family tax breaks do little to help the family, and can even hurt it. She demonstrates how married women pay a special women's tax rate, higher than anybody else's. She shows how problems that engage and enrage us--Social Security problems, or the things we don't like about schools--are, at heart, tax problems. And she explains why the solutions Washington offers merely accelerate a vicious cycle. Finally, Amity Shlaes shows us a way out of this madness, endorsing a number of common-sense reforms that will give all Americans a fairer and simpler tax system. Written with eloquent compassion for working Americans and their families, The Greedy Hand makes the best case yet for rethinking our tax code. It is a book no tax-paying citizen can afford to ignore.