The Rules Of Work (Summary) PDF Free Download

Posted : admin On 1/10/2022
Start display at page:
Download 'Business Rules and Business'

A short summary of this paper. 37 Full PDFs related to this paper. Rules for Focused Success in a Distracted World free download pdf,Deep Work: Rules for Focused. My head against the car window, I cross my legs and arms, folding the ache inside.Cal Newport Free PDF ePub Below: Click on the button given below to download Deep Work: Rules for Focused Success in a Distracted World PDF free. This summary of First, Break all The Rules, What the World’s Greatest Managers Do Differently (Simon & Schuster, 1999) is from Soundview Executive Book Summaries, 10 LaCrue Avenue, Concordville, PA 19331. Nov 30, 2021 The New Rules of Work is now available in the 12min! The microbook based on The New Rules of Work is already available on 12min. Leave your email and you will receive a invitation to download the 12min app. Our app is available for iPhone and Android and in it you will find all our microbooks in text and audio. The New Rules of Work: Notes. Nov 18, 2021 Deep Work: Rules for Focused Success in a Distracted World PDF book by Cal Newport Read Online or Free Download in ePUB, PDF or MOBI eBooks. Published in January 5th 2016 the book become immediate popular and critical acclaim in non fiction, business books. The main characters of Deep Work: Rules for Focused Success in a Distracted World novel.

  • Nathan Oliver
  • 6 years ago
  • Views:

Transcription

1 Page 1 of 5 Business Rules and Business Intelligence Information Management Magazine, April 2007 Robert Blasum Business rules represent an essential part of any performance management system and any business intelligence (BI) project. They allow reporting applications to automatically interpret data, to define purposeful key performance indicators (KPIs) and to suggest remedies for problems. BI projects often start out with a minimal or nonexistent set of business rules. For example, in a customer service environment, the head of customer service might initially request a report showing how many customer service calls have been made to each service center per day. Assuming the data is available, this kind of report could be readily implemented with standard BI tools. Generally, all that needs to be done is to aggregate the base data, summing up the number of calls. ADVERTISEMENT However, once the head of customer service receives this report, he or she might then ask for the number of service requests not processed by a call center in due time. At this point, potentially complex business logic comes into play. One must identify the start and end of a request, follow up on a request reassigned to another service center, measure the time between the start and end, take holidays into account and compare it to a target response time. That is, the resulting report is no longer a straightforward presentation of the base data: it depends heavily on rules that define how to interpret the data. BI experts use the term 'business rule' in a variety of meanings and contexts. Definitions of the term can focus completely on a business point of view or, in other cases, be geared toward an IT perspective. Ronald G. Ross provides a description of a business rule that encompasses both sides. From the business point of view, he says, 'Business rules are literally the encoded knowledge of your business practices.' And from an IT point of view, 'A business rule is an atomic piece of reusable business logic.'1 Business rules form such a crucial part of performance management and BI because they give meaning to the numbers. Business rules allow one to interpret raw data, to come up with insightful reports and to use the information to propose actions. They are an absolute must for root-cause analysis and operational BI. With BI becoming more and more process-oriented, this is of increasing importance. But even classic BI systems,

2 Page 2 of 5 i.e., strategic or tactical BI, almost always contain dozens if not hundreds of implicit business rules. From an IT perspective, business rules are often encoded in either the extract, transform and load (ETL) processes of a data warehouse or within BI tools during the design of specific reports. Both of these variants are less than optimal. A better way to encode business logic is through an independent description of rules in a separated module. This software component is solely dedicated to the implementation of business logic. Such a structure bears four major advantages. First, if designed well, the business logic module can be transparent to the business users. If business rules are buried deep inside ETL or BI tools, the business user cannot review the implementation. He or she has to trust the programmer that all rules have been implemented correctly and work according to the documentation. Furthermore, when questions arise, the original programmer might need to get involved in order to answer questions. For example, if a customer service request is considered to be resolved late - is it late if it took three days, or if it took more than three days? An independent business logic module, in contrast, can be constructed to combine specification, implementation and documentation of business rules. This allows business users to turn to one central module in order to see which business rules are implemented and how they affect reporting results. Secondly, during the course of a BI or performance management project, business rules are modified frequently. This is mainly due to two reasons: 1) the underlying business processes are modified, e.g., because of insights gained from reports of the performance management project; and 2) again possibly due to reports from the BI project, the understanding of the underlying business processes improves, and more detailed rules are discovered. In both cases, the business rules need to be adapted. This is greatly facilitated if they are kept in their own module, without interfering with other IT components. Thirdly, independence of business logic from the rest of the IT infrastructure cuts down on duplication: if the IT department decides to replace one ETL or BI tool with another, the already-implemented business logic does not need to be implemented again with another tool. As the Business Rules Group puts it in their manifesto, 'Business rules should be organized and stored in such a way that they can be readily redeployed to new hardware/software platforms.'2 Finally, a centralized business logic module allows for cross-functional, corporate-wide usage and management of business rules. Consider the initial customer service example. A marketing and sales department of an organization might want to build a KPI for customer satisfaction. Part of this KPI might be how many customer service calls a specific customer makes and how many of those are processed in due time. It is important that marketing and sales has the same understanding of 'processed in due time' as customer service. That is, marketing and sales needs to apply the same business logic for its reports as customer service does. This can be achieved by a central repository of business rules that every department can review, understand and use for their own reports.

3 Page 3 of 5 Related to this last point is the growing interest in master data management (MDM). At present, an increasing number of organizations believe a central MDM is essential to their business in order to have a consistent definition across individual departments. The awareness has grown that master data heavily influences the interpretation of data across different IT systems and that this interpretation should be consistent throughout the whole enterprise. Master data encodes business logic. As such, master data can be seen as a simple and specialized version of business rules. A survey about the status of master data management conducted by The Data Warehousing Institute shows that among the responding companies, only 20 percent of organizations practice MDM as a separate solution.3 The number of companies practicing business rules management as an independent solution can be assumed to be even lower. However, the same needs that demand corporate-wide MDM also apply to business rules. Companies will likely look for ways to develop corporate-wide business rule management systems in the future. What should an independent business logic component look like? In general, business users as well as IT users should be able to define business rules with it and to share these definitions with other business departments and software systems. By design, the component provides an interface between business and IT. In fact, the idea is to directly interface the business users with reporting or operational IT systems, eliminating, to a large extent, the need for IT developers to write programming code. The programming code should be generated by the business logic component itself. Experts commonly call such a component a 'business rules engine.' Unfortunately, two different schools of thought use this term, which frequently leads to confusion. For some this term denotes a software application that can be used to capture know-how about business practices and processes and then allows application of this knowledge to operational data in order to gain insight into specific instances of an operational process. The article follows this understanding of a business rules engine. Others use this term for so-called 'expert systems,' an expression coming from artificial intelligence that infers implications of given business rules on a set of data. Both types of applications encode business rules; however, they are used in rather different settings. It is crucial that businesspeople can administer or at least review the encoded rules of a business rules engine. Therefore, the business rules have to be encapsulated in such a way that they are easily understandable to a business user. This is why business rules experts frequently postulate that business rules should be declarative and formulated in natural language. 'Declarative' in this context is used in opposition to 'procedural.' A common concern with business rules engines is that, over time, the language that is used in order to encode the business logic degenerates into just another programming language, defying the original purpose of the engine. The postulation that rules be declarative helps avoid this trap. It separates the management of business knowledge from its employment during a business process. However, in a BI environment, especially in an operational BI environment, business users tend to think about business rules in a procedural way. That is, instead of a declarative rule such as 'a service center has three days to resolve a request,' one

4 Page 4 of 5 frequently finds rules like 'a service center has three days to resolve a request except if the request has been transferred from another service center, in which case the service center has three days to resolve the request minus the time that has already been spent in the previous service centers.' The latter statement contains more detailed knowledge about the underlying business process: that requests can be redirected from one service center to another. In such an environment, it is useful to allow business rules to describe procedurally a process or subprocess. Such a description can be efficiently formulated in the form of workflow diagrams. Many business rules experts disagree with this interpretation of the term 'business rule.' In fact, from their point of view, this is exactly what a business rule should not be. But in an operational BI environment, it often represents the most natural way for business users to formulate the business logic underlying their operational processes. Workflow diagrams can be understood by both business and IT users and are able to efficiently encode the typical if/else logic that forms the core of most business rules. Business rules engines can then derive executable program code from these diagrams and apply it to operational data, either on request or during batch processing. In a service-oriented architecture (SOA), business rules engines can provide both the business logic calculation as well as business rules definition via Web services. For example, an SOA service can answer requests such as, 'Please show me if this specific customer service call has been processed by our service center in due time and provide me with the precise logic of what 'in due time' means in this context.' The business rules engine can retrieve the definition of 'in due time' and apply this logic to the provided call data on the fly. For reporting purposes, it is often beneficial to apply the business logic during batch processing ahead of time and to store the results directly with the operational data in an enterprise data warehouse. This way, the results are readily available for BI applications and cross-functional purposes. Thus, centrally managed business rules enable BI projects to draw from the business know-how of a company and to work with consistent sets of business logic - they are what add the intelligence to business intelligence. References: 1. Ronald G. Ross. Principles of the Business Rule Approach. Boston: Addison- Wesley, Ronald G. Ross. 'The Business Rules Manifesto, Version 2.0.' Business Rules Group, 1 November Philip Russom. 'Master Data Management.' TDWI, October Robert Blasum is CTO for BusinessCoDe in Germany. He may be reached at For more information on related topics, visit the following channels: Business Intelligence (BI)

5 Page 5 of 5 Business Rules Governance, Risk and Compliance Corporate Performance Management (CPM)

USING BUSINESS RULES IN BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE

USING BUSINESS RULES IN BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE Marinela MIRCEA 1 PhD, University Assistant, Department of Computer Science in Economics, University of Economics, Bucharest, Romania E-mail: [email protected]

More information

QAD Business Intelligence Data Warehouse Demonstration Guide. May 2015 BI 3.11

QAD Business Intelligence Data Warehouse Demonstration Guide May 2015 BI 3.11 Overview This demonstration focuses on the foundation of QAD Business Intelligence the Data Warehouse and shows how this functionality

More information

An Enterprise Framework for Business Intelligence

An Enterprise Framework for Business Intelligence Colin White BI Research May 2009 Sponsored by Oracle Corporation TABLE OF CONTENTS AN ENTERPRISE FRAMEWORK FOR BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE 1 THE BI PROCESSING

More information

Big Data for Investment Research Management

IDT Partners www.idtpartners.com Big Data for Investment Research Management Discover how IDT Partners helps Financial Services, Market Research, and Investment Management firms turn big data into actionable

More information

The Spectrum of Data Integration Solutions: Why You Should Have Them All

HAWTIN, STEVE, Schlumberger Information Systems, Houston TX; NAJIB ABUSALBI, Schlumberger Information Systems, Stavanger, Norway; LESTER BAYNE, Schlumberger Information Systems, Stavanger, Norway; MARK

More information

Whitepaper Data Governance Roadmap for IT Executives Valeh Nazemoff

Whitepaper Data Governance Roadmap for IT Executives Valeh Nazemoff The Challenge IT Executives are challenged with issues around data, compliancy, regulation and making confident decisions on their business

More information

The 5 Questions You Need to Ask Before Selecting a Business Intelligence Vendor. www.halobi.com. Share With Us!

The 5 Questions You Need to Ask Before Selecting a Business Intelligence Vendor www.halobi.com Share With Us! Overview Over the last decade, Business Intelligence (BI) has been at or near the top of the

More information

JOURNAL OF OBJECT TECHNOLOGY

JOURNAL OF OBJECT TECHNOLOGY Online at www.jot.fm. Published by ETH Zurich, Chair of Software Engineering JOT, 2008 Vol. 7, No. 8, November-December 2008 What s Your Information Agenda? Mahesh H. Dodani,

More information The

Making Data Work. Florida Department of Transportation October 24, 2014

Making Data Work Florida Department of Transportation October 24, 2014 1 2 Data, Data Everywhere. Challenges in organizing this vast amount of data into something actionable: Where to find? How to store?

More information

An Introduction to Data Warehousing. An organization manages information in two dominant forms: operational systems of

An Introduction to Data Warehousing An organization manages information in two dominant forms: operational systems of record and data warehouses. Operational systems are designed to support online transaction

More information

Data warehouse and Business Intelligence Collateral

Data warehouse and Business Intelligence Collateral Page 1 of 12 DATA WAREHOUSE AND BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE COLLATERAL Brains for the corporate brawn: In the current scenario of the business world, the competition

More information

EFFECTS OF BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE APPLICATION IN TOLLING SYSTEM

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7708/ijtte.2015.5(1).06 UDC: 629.7.051 EFFECTS OF BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE APPLICATION IN TOLLING SYSTEM Gordana Radivojević 1,2, Bratislav Lazić 2, Gorana Šormaz 3 1 University

More information

Gradient An EII Solution From Infosys

Gradient An EII Solution From Infosys Keywords: Grid, Enterprise Integration, EII Introduction New arrays of business are emerging that require cross-functional data in near real-time. Examples of such

More information

The Importance of a Single Platform for Data Integration and Quality Management

helping build the smart and agile business The Importance of a Single Platform for Data Integration and Quality Management Colin White BI Research March 2008 Sponsored by Business Objects TABLE OF CONTENTS

More information

Knowledgent White Paper Series. Developing an MDM Strategy WHITE PAPER. Key Components for Success

Developing an MDM Strategy Key Components for Success WHITE PAPER Table of Contents Introduction... 2 Process Considerations... 3 Architecture Considerations... 5 Conclusion... 9 About Knowledgent... 10

More information

Effecting Data Quality Improvement through Data Virtualization

Effecting Data Quality Improvement through Data Virtualization Prepared for Composite Software by: David Loshin Knowledge Integrity, Inc. June, 2010 2010 Knowledge Integrity, Inc. Page 1 Introduction The

More information

Ten Mistakes to Avoid When Planning Your CDI/MDM Project

Data Integration Article Ten Mistakes to Avoid When Planning Your CDI/MDM Project by Jill Dyche and Evan Levy 2006 This article originally appeared in TDWI Quarterly, Q3 2006, and is reprinted with permission.

More information

The Power of Business Intelligence in the Revenue Cycle

The Power of Business Intelligence in the Revenue Cycle Increasing Cash Flow with Actionable Information John Garcia August 4, 2011 Table of Contents Revenue Cycle Challenges... 3 The Goal of Business

More information

SQL Server 2012 Business Intelligence Boot Camp

SQL Server 2012 Business Intelligence Boot Camp Length: 5 Days Technology: Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Delivery Method: Instructor-led (classroom) About this Course Data warehousing is a solution organizations

More information

POLAR IT SERVICES. Business Intelligence Project Methodology

POLAR IT SERVICES Business Intelligence Project Methodology Table of Contents 1. Overview... 2 2. Visualize... 3 3. Planning and Architecture... 4 3.1 Define Requirements... 4 3.1.1 Define Attributes...

More information

TDWI strives to provide course books that are content-rich and that serve as useful reference documents after a class has ended.

Previews of TDWI course books are provided as an opportunity to see the quality of our material and help you to select the courses that best fit your needs. The previews can not be printed. TDWI strives

More information

DataFlux Data Management Studio

DataFlux Data Management Studio DataFlux Data Management Studio provides the key for true business and IT collaboration a single interface for data management tasks. A Single Point of Control for Enterprise

More information

Business Usage Monitoring for Teradata

Managing Big Analytic Data Business Usage Monitoring for Teradata Increasing Operational Efficiency and Reducing Data Management Costs How to Increase Operational Efficiency and Reduce Data Management

More information

Part of the solution. Bringing it all Together - Informa2on and Data Management

Bringing it all Together - Informa2on and Data Management 1 Information vs. Data Information Knowledge, meaning The input needed to make business decisions The Focus Area of The Business Data Factual information

More information

Master Data Management and Data Warehousing. Zahra Mansoori

Master Data Management and Data Warehousing Zahra Mansoori 1 1. Preference 2 IT landscape growth IT landscapes have grown into complex arrays of different systems, applications, and technologies over the

More information

Integrating SAP and non-sap data for comprehensive Business Intelligence

WHITE PAPER Integrating SAP and non-sap data for comprehensive Business Intelligence www.barc.de/en Business Application Research Center 2 Integrating SAP and non-sap data Authors Timm Grosser Senior Analyst

More information

Data Mart/Warehouse: Progress and Vision

Data Mart/Warehouse: Progress and Vision Institutional Research and Planning University Information Systems What is data warehousing? A data warehouse: is a single place that contains complete, accurate

More information

Business Intelligence in Oracle Fusion Applications

Business Intelligence in Oracle Fusion Applications Brahmaiah Yepuri Kumar Paloji Poorna Rekha Copyright 2012. Apps Associates LLC. 1 Agenda Overview Evolution of BI Features and Benefits of BI in Fusion

More information

How Microsoft IT India s Test Organization Enabled Efficient Business Intelligence

How Microsoft IT India s Test Organization Enabled Efficient Business Intelligence December 2013 The following content may no longer reflect Microsoft s current position or infrastructure. This content

More information

Selecting Help Desk Software

Publishers Of: MC eserver Insight MC itechnology Manager MC iapplication Designer MC RPG Developer MC TNT Tips N Tirade MC Showcase MC Showcase Buyer s Guide Selecting Help Desk Software A good helpdesk

More information

Fortune 500 Medical Devices Company Addresses Unique Device Identification

Fortune 500 Medical Devices Company Addresses Unique Device Identification New FDA regulation was driver for new data governance and technology strategies that could be leveraged for enterprise-wide benefit

More information

Course Outline. Module 1: Introduction to Data Warehousing

Course Outline Module 1: Introduction to Data Warehousing This module provides an introduction to the key components of a data warehousing solution and the highlevel considerations you must take into account

More information

The Advantages of a Golden Record in Customer Master Data Management

Golden Record The Advantages of a Golden Record in Customer Master Data Management Dr. Wolfgang Martin, Analyst Master data describes the components of a company: its customers, suppliers, dealers, partners,

More information

Agile Business Intelligence Data Lake Architecture

Agile Business Intelligence Data Lake Architecture TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction... 2 Data Lake Architecture... 2 Step 1 Extract From Source Data... 5 Step 2 Register And Catalogue Data Sets... 5 Step

More information

Business Intelligence and Service Oriented Architectures. An Oracle White Paper May 2007

Business Intelligence and Service Oriented Architectures An Oracle White Paper May 2007 Note: The following is intended to outline our general product direction. It is intended for information purposes

More information

Oracle BI Applications (BI Apps) is a prebuilt business intelligence solution.

1 2 Oracle BI Applications (BI Apps) is a prebuilt business intelligence solution. BI Apps supports Oracle sources, such as Oracle E-Business Suite Applications, Oracle's Siebel Applications, Oracle's

More information

MDM and Data Warehousing Complement Each Other

Master Management MDM and Warehousing Complement Each Other Greater business value from both 2011 IBM Corporation Executive Summary Master Management (MDM) and Warehousing (DW) complement each other There

More information

Web Analytics Definitions Approved August 16, 2007

Web Analytics Definitions Approved August 16, 2007 Web Analytics Association 2300 M Street, Suite 800 Washington DC 20037 [email protected] 1-800-349-1070 Licensed under a Creative

More information

Working Approach to a Strategically Aligned THINK.CHANGE.DO

Working Approach to a Strategically Aligned Business Intelligence solution (WASABIs) THINK.CHANGE.DO UTS Approx 32,700 enrolled students Approx 2576 staff 20 years old Voted 2007 ugliest building in Sydney

More information

US Department of Education Federal Student Aid Integration Leadership Support Contractor June 1, 2007

US Department of Education Federal Student Aid Integration Leadership Support Contractor June 1, 2007 Draft Enterprise Data Management Data Policies Final i Executive Summary This document defines data

More information

Dashboards as a management tool to monitoring the strategy. Carlos González (IAT) 19th November 2014, Valencia (Spain)

Dashboards as a management tool to monitoring the strategy Carlos González (IAT) 19th November 2014, Valencia (Spain) Definitions Strategy Management Tool Monitoring Dashboard Definitions STRATEGY From

More information

Next Generation Business Performance Management Solution

Next Generation Business Performance Management Solution Why Existing Business Intelligence (BI) Products are Inadequate Changing Business Environment In the face of increased competition, complex customer

More information

Insurance Business Intelligence Solution

Insurance BI solution that encompasses reporting, dashboards, ETL, built-in data management & analytics for insurance companies Insurance Business Intelligence Solution About MindCraft A software solutions

More information

IBM Information Management

IBM Information Management January 2008 IBM Information Management software Enterprise Information Management, Enterprise Content Management, Master Data Management How Do They Fit Together An IBM Whitepaper

More information

Data Warehousing: A Technology Review and Update Vernon Hoffner, Ph.D., CCP EntreSoft Resouces, Inc.

Warehousing: A Technology Review and Update Vernon Hoffner, Ph.D., CCP EntreSoft Resouces, Inc. Introduction Abstract warehousing has been around for over a decade. Therefore, when you read the articles

More information

Microsoft Dynamics CRM Solutions for Retail Banking

Performance Microsoft Dynamics CRM Solutions for Retail Banking White Paper Setting new standards that enable retail banks to attract, retain, and service customers with superior speed, efficiency, and

More information

The Benefits of Data Modeling in Data Warehousing

WHITE PAPER: THE BENEFITS OF DATA MODELING IN DATA WAREHOUSING The Benefits of Data Modeling in Data Warehousing NOVEMBER 2008 Table of Contents Executive Summary 1 SECTION 1 2 Introduction 2 SECTION 2

More information

BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE AND DATA WAREHOUSING. Y o u r B u s i n e s s A c c e l e r a t o r

BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE AND DATA WAREHOUSING. Y o u r B u s i n e s s A c c e l e r a t o r About AccelTeam Leading intelligence solutions provider led by highly qualified professionals Industry vertical

More information

Getting Started With Master Data Management

Table of Contents Intelligent Business Strategies Getting Started With Master Data Management By Mike Ferguson Intelligent Business Strategies March 2008 Prepared for: Table of Contents Introduction...

More information

SAP BOBJ. Participants will gain the detailed knowledge necessary to design a dashboard that can be used to facilitate the decision making process.

SAP BOBJ 1. BOX310 SAP Business Objects Dashboards 4.0: Core Participants will gain the detailed knowledge necessary to design a dashboard that can be used to facilitate the decision making process. Participants

More information

B.Sc (Computer Science) Database Management Systems UNIT-V

1 B.Sc (Computer Science) Database Management Systems UNIT-V Business Intelligence? Business intelligence is a term used to describe a comprehensive cohesive and integrated set of tools and process used

More information

THOMAS RAVN PRACTICE DIRECTOR [email protected] An Effective Approach to Master Data Management. March 4 th 2010, Reykjavik WWW.PLATON.

An Effective Approach to Master Management THOMAS RAVN PRACTICE DIRECTOR [email protected] March 4 th 2010, Reykjavik WWW.PLATON.NET Agenda Introduction to MDM The aspects of an effective MDM program How

More information

INTRODUCTION TO BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE What to consider implementing a Data Warehouse and Business Intelligence

INTRODUCTION TO BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE What to consider implementing a Data Warehouse and Business Intelligence Summary: This note gives some overall high-level introduction to Business Intelligence and

More information

Vermont Enterprise Architecture Framework (VEAF) Master Data Management Design

Vermont Enterprise Architecture Framework (VEAF) Master Data Management Design EA APPROVALS Approving Authority: REVISION HISTORY Version Date Organization/Point

More information

Bringing agility to Business Intelligence Metadata as key to Agile Data Warehousing. 1 P a g e. www.analytixds.com

Bringing agility to Business Intelligence Metadata as key to Agile Data Warehousing 1 P a g e Table of Contents What is the key to agility in Data Warehousing?... 3 The need to address requirements completely....

More information

Three Fundamental Techniques To Maximize the Value of Your Enterprise Data

The rules of work (summary) pdf free download free

Three Fundamental Techniques To Maximize the Value of Your Enterprise Data Prepared for Talend by: David Loshin Knowledge Integrity, Inc. October, 2010 2010 Knowledge Integrity, Inc. 1 Introduction Organizations

More information

The Power of Analysis Framework

All too often, users must create real-time planning and analysis reports with static and inconsistent sources of information. Data is locked in an Excel spreadsheet or a rigidly customized application

More information

Making Business Intelligence Easy. Whitepaper Measuring data quality for successful Master Data Management

Making Business Intelligence Easy Whitepaper Measuring data quality for successful Master Data Management Contents Overview... 3 What is Master Data Management?... 3 Master Data Modeling Approaches...

More information

Four Methods to Monetize Service Assurance Monitoring Data

whitepaper Four Methods to Monetize Service Assurance Monitoring Data Using Service Assurance Analytics in Voice and Data Network Monitoring to Increase Revenue and Reduce Cost Introduction In general,

More information

DEVELOPING REQUIREMENTS FOR DATA WAREHOUSE SYSTEMS WITH USE CASES

DEVELOPING REQUIREMENTS FOR DATA WAREHOUSE SYSTEMS WITH USE CASES Robert M. Bruckner Vienna University of Technology [email protected] Beate List Vienna University of Technology [email protected]

More information

ORACLE DATA INTEGRATOR ENTEPRISE EDITION FOR BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE

ORACLE DATA INTEGRATOR ENTEPRISE EDITION FOR BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE KEY FEATURES AND BENEFITS (E-LT architecture delivers highest performance. Integrated metadata for alignment between Business Intelligence

More information

The New Jersey Enterprise Data Warehouse. State of New Jersey

ENTERPRISE DATA WAREHOUSE 2011 NASCIO Recognition Award Submission New Jersey Office of Information Technology Office of Management Services The New Jersey Warehouse Category:, Information, and Knowledge

More information

Implementing a Data Warehouse with Microsoft SQL Server 2014

Implementing a Data Warehouse with Microsoft SQL Server 2014 MOC 20463 Duración: 25 horas Introducción This course describes how to implement a data warehouse platform to support a BI solution. Students

More information

Big Data for Investment Research Management

IDT Partners www.idtpartners.com Big Data for Investment Research Management Discover how IDT Partners helps Financial Services, Market Research, and Investment firms turn big data into actionable research

More information

META DATA QUALITY CONTROL ARCHITECTURE IN DATA WAREHOUSING

META DATA QUALITY CONTROL ARCHITECTURE IN DATA WAREHOUSING Ramesh Babu Palepu 1, Dr K V Sambasiva Rao 2 Dept of IT, Amrita Sai Institute of Science & Technology 1 MVR College of Engineering 2 [email protected]

More information

ENTERPRISE EDITION ORACLE DATA SHEET KEY FEATURES AND BENEFITS ORACLE DATA INTEGRATOR

ORACLE DATA INTEGRATOR ENTERPRISE EDITION KEY FEATURES AND BENEFITS ORACLE DATA INTEGRATOR ENTERPRISE EDITION OFFERS LEADING PERFORMANCE, IMPROVED PRODUCTIVITY, FLEXIBILITY AND LOWEST TOTAL COST OF OWNERSHIP

More information

INTELLIGENT PROFILE ANALYSIS GRADUATE ENTREPRENEUR (ipage) SYSTEM USING BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE TECHNOLOGY

INTELLIGENT PROFILE ANALYSIS GRADUATE ENTREPRENEUR (ipage) SYSTEM USING BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE TECHNOLOGY Muhamad Shahbani, Azman Ta a, Mohd Azlan, and Norshuhada Shiratuddin INTRODUCTION Universiti Utara

More information

CHAPTER SIX DATA. Business Intelligence. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights Reserved

CHAPTER SIX DATA Business Intelligence 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights Reserved 2 CHAPTER OVERVIEW SECTION 6.1 Data, Information, Databases The Business Benefits of High-Quality Information

More information

Data Ownership and Enterprise Data Management: Implementing a Data Management Strategy (Part 3)

A DataFlux White Paper Prepared by: Mike Ferguson Data Ownership and Enterprise Data Management: Implementing a Data Management Strategy (Part 3) Leader in Data Quality and Data Integration www.flux.com

More information

CRM and Your Business. A Jargon-Free Guide to How CRM Can Help Your Business

CRM and Your Business A Jargon-Free Guide to How CRM Can Help Your Business CRM and Your Business CRM, Customer Relationship Management, and more particularly the technologies involved in delivering it

More information

Escape from Data Jail: Getting business value out of your data warehouse

Escape from Data Jail: Getting business value out of your data warehouse Monica Woolmer, Catapult BI, (Formally Formation Data Pty Ltd) Does your organisation have data but struggle with providing effective

More information

POWER OF INTELLIGENCE AGILE BUSINESS DECISION MAKING

POWER OF INTELLIGENCE AGILE BUSINESS DECISION MAKING Agenda Introducing Pieter Rambags Introducing Nippur Business Intelligence Traditional Active BI Big Data The extended enterprise revisited Conclusions

More information

Active Smart Grid Analytics Maximizing Your Smart Grid Investment

Itron White Paper Itron Enterprise Edition Meter Data Management Active Smart Grid Analytics Maximizing Your Smart Grid Investment Sharelynn Moore Director, Product Marketing Itron Stephen Butler Managing

More information

DATA TRANSPARENCY TOWN HALL MEETING

DATA TRANSPARENCY TOWN HALL MEETING September 26, 2014 [email protected] [email protected] A Question How much financial data does the US Government have? 2 Teradata Confidential 3

More information

WHITEPAPER. Creating and Deploying Predictive Strategies that Drive Customer Value in Marketing, Sales and Risk

WHITEPAPER Creating and Deploying Predictive Strategies that Drive Customer Value in Marketing, Sales and Risk Overview Angoss is helping its clients achieve significant revenue growth and measurable return

More information

Data Services: The Marriage of Data Integration and Application Integration

Data Services: The Marriage of Data Integration and Application Integration A Whitepaper Author: Rick F. van der Lans Independent Business Intelligence Analyst R20/Consultancy July, 2012 Sponsored by Copyright

More information

Contents. visualintegrator The Data Creator for Analytical Applications. www.visualmetrics.co.uk. Executive Summary. Operational Scenario

About visualmetrics visualmetrics is a Business Intelligence (BI) solutions provider that develops and delivers best of breed Analytical Applications, utilising BI tools, to its focus markets. Based in

More information

Data Integration: Using ETL, EAI, and EII Tools to Create an Integrated Enterprise. Colin White Founder, BI Research TDWI Webcast October 2005

Data Integration: Using ETL, EAI, and EII Tools to Create an Integrated Enterprise Colin White Founder, BI Research TDWI Webcast October 2005 TDWI Data Integration Study Copyright BI Research 2005 2 Data

More information

ORACLE ENTERPRISE DATA QUALITY PRODUCT FAMILY

ORACLE ENTERPRISE DATA QUALITY PRODUCT FAMILY The Oracle Enterprise Data Quality family of products helps organizations achieve maximum value from their business critical applications by delivering fit

More information

APPLYING FUNCTION POINTS WITHIN A SOA ENVIRONMENT

APPLYING FUNCTION POINTS WITHIN A SOA ENVIRONMENT Jeff Lindskoog EDS, An HP Company 1401 E. Hoffer St Kokomo, IN 46902 USA 1 / 16 SEPTEMBER 2009 / EDS INTERNAL So, Ah, How Big is it? 2 / 16 SEPTEMBER 2009

More information

The following is intended to outline our general product direction. It is intended for informational purposes only, and may not be incorporated into

The following is intended to outline our general product direction. It is intended for informational purposes only, and may not be incorporated into any contract. It is not a commitment to deliver any

More information

Master Data Management: dos & don ts

Master Data Management: dos & don ts Keesjan van Unen, Ad de Goeij, Sander Swartjes, and Ard van der Staaij Master Data Management (MDM) is high on the agenda for many organizations. At Board level too,

More information

QLIKVIEW DEPLOYMENT FOR BIG DATA ANALYTICS AT KING.COM

QLIKVIEW DEPLOYMENT FOR BIG DATA ANALYTICS AT KING.COM QlikView Technical Case Study Series Big Data June 2012 qlikview.com Introduction This QlikView technical case study focuses on the QlikView deployment

More information

SOA, Cloud Computing & Semantic Web Technology: Understanding How They Can Work Together. Thomas Erl, Arcitura Education Inc. & SOA Systems Inc.

SOA, Cloud Computing & Semantic Web Technology: Understanding How They Can Work Together Thomas Erl, Arcitura Education Inc. & SOA Systems Inc. Overview SOA + Cloud Computing SOA + Semantic Web Technology

More information

ACCESS INTELLIGENCE. an intelligent step beyond Access Management. White Paper

ACCESS INTELLIGENCE an intelligent step beyond Access Management White Paper Table of Contents Access Intelligence an intelligent step beyond Access Management...3 The new Identity Access Management paradigm...3

More information

White paper Interstage Business Operations Platform: Master Data Management

White paper Interstage Business Operations Platform: Master Data Management Document version 1.0 Date: Aug. 29, 2012 Page 1 of 10 This page intentionally left blank Page 2 of 10 Table of Contents Table

More information

Database Marketing, Business Intelligence and Knowledge Discovery

Database Marketing, Business Intelligence and Knowledge Discovery Note: Using material from Tan / Steinbach / Kumar (2005) Introduction to Data Mining, Addison Wesley; and Cios / Pedrycz / Swiniarski

More information

Implementing Oracle BI Applications during an ERP Upgrade

1 Implementing Oracle BI Applications during an ERP Upgrade Jamal Syed Table of Contents TABLE OF CONTENTS... 2 Executive Summary... 3 Planning an ERP Upgrade?... 4 A Need for Speed... 6 Impact of data

More information

Introduction to Business Intelligence

IBM Software Group Introduction to Business Intelligence Vince Leat ASEAN SW Group 2007 IBM Corporation Discussion IBM Software Group What is Business Intelligence BI Vision Evolution Business Intelligence

More information

High-Volume Data Warehousing in Centerprise. Product Datasheet

High-Volume Data Warehousing in Centerprise Product Datasheet Table of Contents Overview 3 Data Complexity 3 Data Quality 3 Speed and Scalability 3 Centerprise Data Warehouse Features 4 ETL in a Unified

More information

Explore the Possibilities

Explore the Possibilities 2013 HR Service Delivery Forum Best Practices in Data Management: Creating a Sustainable and Robust Repository for Reporting and Insights 2013 Towers Watson. All rights reserved.

More information

Information Management & Data Governance

Data governance is a means to define the policies, standards, and data management services to be employed by the organization. Information Management & Data Governance OVERVIEW A thorough Data Governance

More information

Data Warehouse Optimization

Data Warehouse Optimization Embedding Hadoop in Data Warehouse Environments A Whitepaper Rick F. van der Lans Independent Business Intelligence Analyst R20/Consultancy September 2013 Sponsored by Copyright

More information

AV-005: Administering and Implementing a Data Warehouse with SQL Server 2014

AV-005: Administering and Implementing a Data Warehouse with SQL Server 2014 Career Details Duration 105 hours Prerequisites This career requires that you meet the following prerequisites: Working knowledge

More information

A Step-by-Step Guide to Defining Your Cloud Services Catalog

A Step-by-Step Guide to Defining Your Cloud Services Catalog Table of Contents Introduction Chapter 1 Defining the Services Catalog Chapter 2 Building a Services Catalog Chapter 3 Choosing the Right Solution

More information

Fluency With Information Technology CSE100/IMT100

Fluency With Information Technology CSE100/IMT100 ),7 Larry Snyder & Mel Oyler, Instructors Ariel Kemp, Isaac Kunen, Gerome Miklau & Sean Squires, Teaching Assistants University of Washington, Autumn 1999

More information

Integrating Business Intelligence Module into Learning Management System

Integrating Business Intelligence Module into Learning Management System Mario Fabijanić and Zoran Skočir* Cognita Address: Radoslava Cimermana 64a, 10020 Zagreb, Croatia Telephone: 00 385 1 6558 440 Fax:

More information

MECOMS Customer Care More than CRM. By Johan Crols. Copyright 2012 Ferranti Computer Systems. All rights reserved

Whitepaper MECOMS Customer Care More than CRM By Johan Crols Copyright 2012 Ferranti Computer Systems. All rights reserved 3 Customer Care or CRM? CRM, or Customer Relationship Management is defined by

More information

Multidimensional Modeling - Stocks

Bases de Dados e Data Warehouse 06 BDDW 2006/2007 Notice! Author ' João Moura Pires ([email protected])! This material can be freely used for personal or academic purposes without any previous authorization

Free More information

The New Rules of Work The Modern Playbook To Navigating Your Career. In this best-selling playbook to the ever-changing workplace, the co-founders of the popular career website TheMuse.com show you how to play the career game by the New Rules.

  • The RICS new rules of measurement (NRM) is a suite of documents issued by the RICS Quantity Surveying and Construction Professional Group. The rules have been written to provide a standard set of measurement rules that are understandable by all those involved in a construction projects and maintenance programmes of works.
  • Explanation of the Table. The rules at the head of the 8 columns apply to all original main motions, and to all other cases except where a star (.) or a figure indicates that the motion is an exception to these rules. The star shows that the exact opposite of the rule at the head of the column applies to the motion.
  • Download the free worksheets and google job search tips, or check this book out from a library if you fee That said, I don’t think any of this is “new” since the recession of 2008. I finished college as the market was crashing and have been navigating the working world since, and the rules laid out in this book have been standard practice.
  • The New Rules of Work embraces this new reality, showing how constantly pursuing new experiences, skills, and networks helps us enhance our value in the workplace, expand our career options, and thrive in a world where change is the new norm.”—SALLIE KRAWCHECK, CEO.

Work Rules

The rules of work (summary) pdf free download books
Author : Laszlo Bock
File Size : 77.65 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 695
Read : 608
Download »

Work Rules Laszlo Bock Summary

NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLERWALL STREET JOURNAL BESTSELLER The Globe and Mail Top Leadership and Management BookForbes Top Creative Leadership Book From the visionary head of Google's innovative People Operations comes a groundbreaking inquiry into the philosophy of work-and a blueprint for attracting the most spectacular talent to your business and ensuring that they succeed. 'We spend more time working than doing anything else in life. It's not right that the experience of work should be so demotivating and dehumanizing.' So says Laszlo Bock, former head of People Operations at the company that transformed how the world interacts with knowledge. This insight is the heart of WORK RULES!, a compelling and surprisingly playful manifesto that offers lessons including: Take away managers' power over employees Learn from your best employees-and your worst Hire only people who are smarter than you are, no matter how long it takes to find them Pay unfairly (it's more fair!) Don't trust your gut: Use data to predict and shape the future Default to open-be transparent and welcome feedback If you're comfortable with the amount of freedom you've given your employees, you haven't gone far enough. Drawing on the latest research in behavioral economics and a profound grasp of human psychology, WORK RULES! also provides teaching examples from a range of industries-including lauded companies that happen to be hideous places to work and little-known companies that achieve spectacular results by valuing and listening to their employees. Bock takes us inside one of history's most explosively successful businesses to reveal why Google is consistently rated one of the best places to work in the world, distilling 15 years of intensive worker R&D into principles that are easy to put into action, whether you're a team of one or a team of thousands. WORK RULES! shows how to strike a balance between creativity and structure, leading to success you can measure in quality of life as well as market share. Read it to build a better company from within rather than from above; read it to reawaken your joy in what you do.

“The times they are a-changin,” sang the great Bob Dylan in 1964. Well, since then, the times have changed quite a bit – and the world of work is no exception! In an age of constant connection and an ever-expanding menu of options, not only have the boundaries between “work” and “not work” been blurred, but also the non-linear – or non-traditional career path – career path has become the norm. Nowadays, we have options our parents never dreamed of; the caveat is that we also have to deal with issues they never had to deal with.

That’s where “The New Rules of Work” comes in. Nicely written and smartly structured by Kathryn Minshew and Alexandra Cavoulacos – founders of the popular career website The Muse – this book has been justly advertised as “the definitive guide to the modern workplace.” So, get ready for a quick introduction to the new world of work and prepare to discover a few tools for finding the right path and landing the perfect job!

What do you actually want?

“In the new world of work,” write Minshew and Cavoulacos in the introduction to their book, “what many of us need is not a tool for job search, but tools for job discovery.” In other words, much more than Indeed or LinkedIn, we need tools that will help us understand our professional strengths and skills and tools to figure out what we, as unique individuals, really want out of life. That’s precisely what Minshew and Cavoulacos’ Three R’s aim to help you with. The Three R’s – reflect, research and refine – frame a series of steps that should effortlessly guide you through the all-important preparatory stage of your career. Let’s examine them, one by one:

  • Reflect. Until justl two or three decades ago, one’s career was pretty much determined by one’s degree. Put otherwise, when one chose to be an economics major in college, they also chose both a job and a career in finance. Fortunately, thanks to the advent of the internet, education has stopped being “a ball and chain,” and has become “a platform to spring forward from.” There are many free online resources – websites, courses, stories, etc. – that can help you augment your education, and extend your real strengths, talents, interests and values at any stage of your growth and development. The path isn’t preordained anymore: you are in charge of it now. You can skip between jobs whenever you want to, and you can reimagine yourself along the way. Start reflecting on who you are today. Ask yourself the following two questions: “What do you value?” and “What’s your current frame of mind?” If you want to figure out what you want in a job or in life, try to be brutally honest when answering them.
  • Research. In the past, there were only a few methods for getting career information or advice. Nowadays, all you need is “a web browser and a bit of curiosity” to reach anyone and learn almost anything about, well, anything. That’s great, but it’s also daunting. The more choices we have, the more incapable we become of reaching a decision. To keep your research organized, use the Muse Method. First, choose seven industries where you want to work (e.g., healthcare, tech), and then put them into a grid, cross-examining against your values and expectations (e.g., flexibility, compensation, creativity). Finally, dive into Google to identify the top companies in each of the industries and discover what they offer and how satisfying their offers are. This will help you narrow down your list to three industries and several companies. That means it’s time for refinement.
  • Refine. Refining your research essentially means assessing it against your passions and motivations. You can start by identifying your dream jobs and dream companies just so you can have a proper measure stick. Next, you can test drive your possible career paths by trying a relevant internship or a related freelance gig, by taking a free online class, or even by volunteering in your free time. That should help you get a better idea of what you really want out of your job and life. When you learn that, it’s all about conquering the fear to go outside your comfort zone. To achieve this, try to identify your strengths and weaknesses, and – more importantly – try to put in place your worst enemy: your inner critic. If you can’t do it by yourself, it’s worth talking to a mental health professional, or even a coach.

Laszlo Bock Book

As you can see, as far as Minshew and Cavoulacos are concerned, the process of finding a job in the modern world should be both as rigorous and as experimental as the scientific method. “You first need to have a hypothesis about what you want to do with your career,” they explain, “and then you take steps to prove or disprove whether you’re headed in the right direction – that is, the right direction for you. In other words, you don’t have to ‘have it all figured out’ to make the next move, but you do need a solid footing.”

The Rules Of Work Richard Templar Pdf Free Download

The nuts and bolts of getting a job

Making a move before knowing what your dream job or career could look like is not that dissimilar from starting your car without at least a vague idea about your destination. Sure, the ride might be fun, but you’re less likely to reach a rewarding end point than to run out of gas in the middle of nowhere! On the other hand, once you’ve identified your dream job, you can safely move to the nuts and bolts of getting it under the New Rules of Work. These are the basics:

  • Building your brand. In the past, branding was for products only; today it’s for people as well. In fact, that’s why we have so many Instagram and YouTube influencers. Employers today want employees who are not only talented, but who also know how to present themselves as such. To develop your personal brand, determine your brand attributes first. Then, draft a branding statement that captures them and update all of your profiles to reflect them – and only them. You’ll also need a personal website – there’s no better vehicle to display your new persona and your new unique voice.
  • Networking. Networking has always been considered one of the most important pillars of a successful career but, due to social media, it has never been more “nuanced, common, and expected” than today. Real networking, however, shouldn’t be a business transaction when you need something; it should be all about building ongoing and mutually beneficial relationships with people you care about. In fact, networking is never merely about making new connections, but also about investing in the connections you already have.
  • Finding job opportunities. Job boards and classified sections of newspapers are long a thing of the past. Nowadays, there are many better ways to find the position that best suits you! The four best, according to Minshew and Cavoulacos, are the following: 1) keeping close tabs on your dream companies; 2) Asking your network for introductions and referrals; 3) Doing a job search online; and 4) Using social networks to identify openings.
  • Crafting your application. Some things never change. Even though under the New Rules of Work, we apply for jobs online rather than in person, CVs, resumes and cover letters still matter. In fact, one can argue that they matter more than ever, because nowadays – and for a good part of the application process – most of us are nothing more than “faceless data points.” To stand out, you not only need an informative resume, but also a well-structured and nicely designed one. Show as much as you can; tell only the necessary. Make sure to include quantifiable achievements. And use action words!
  • Acing the interview. There are many more ways to conduct an interview today than there were a few decades ago. All of them demand different types of preparation, but most can be “aced” if you approach them with a good understanding of the company, your potential role, your relevant background and the people you’ll be meeting with. Prepare for the inevitable questions, such as “Tell me a little about yourself,” “Why do you want this job?,” “What are your strengths and weaknesses?” and “Where do you see yourself in five years?”
  • Nailing your negotiation. In today’s marketplace, companies make their first offers with the expectation that prospective employees would negotiate their position. Hence, “Unless you haggle a little, you might end up with less than you’re worth.” Don’t forget that you can negotiate for benefits other than salary, including a flexible schedule, vacation time, moving expenses and more.

Charting your course through the modern workplace

Finding the job you like is merely the first step toward becoming the master of your career and, subsequently, your destiny. If you want to keep your job, under the New Rules of Work, you’ll have to excel at it. Meaning, you’ll have to be fully dedicated to your responsibilities and do the best work you can, regardless of what you do or on which step of the career ladder you currently stand. In addition to showcasing your talents and strengths, you’ll also need to demonstrate certain personal qualities and soft skills to be successful and progress. Here are a few tips and tricks to enhance your value in the workplace.

The New Rules Of Work Pdf free. download full

Work rules laszlo bock
  • Communication. In the past, there were only a few ways to communicate and that made communication clear and straightforward. Nowadays, thanks to social media, communication is far more casual and laid back, and riddled with fluff and fillers. If you want to stand out, you need to learn how to communicate professionally. Say or write something only when it’s necessary. “Whether you’re writing an email or speaking in front of a group of people, you need to have a clear-cut purpose,” write Minshew and Cavoulacos. Be respectful toward your audience and personalize your message with respect to their expectations. Listen as much as you speak. Also, especially during meetings and public presentations, be wary of nonverbal cues: they sometimes say more than words.
  • Interpersonal skills. In today’s dynamic world of work, interpersonal skills have become almost as important as strengths and talents. No wonder they are sometimes called “employability skills” as well. Unless you’re exceptional at what you do – and even then – your employer will value you more as a team player and collaborator than as a lone wolf. So, mind your competitiveness and find ways to connect to your colleagues and superiors. Identify the influencers and connectors and stay near them – until you become one of them some day. The same goes for mentoring as well: if you can, be a mentee of the best until you can become a mentor of the best. Most importantly, try to handle conflicts and confrontations like a pro by owning up to your own mistakes and forgiving other people’s.
  • Productivity. In the past, work lives were compressed into nine-to-five schedules, spanning from Monday to Friday. Thanks to technology, however, nowadays it feels like we are supposed to be working constantly, since we are “connected, available, and reachable” all the time. There’s a difference, though, between being busy and overworked on the one side, and being productive and efficient on the other. To achieve the latter, try the authors’ 1-3-5 method. In their words, “On any given day, assume that you can only accomplish one big thing, three medium things, and five small things, and narrow down your to-do list to those nine items.” Contrary to popular opinion, productivity is never about doing more in less time; it’s about prioritizing, that is to say, about doing the right things in the right order.
  • Career advancement. In the past, career advancement lay almost solely in the hands of employers and meant pretty much predefined promotions after a set number of years. Nowadays, however, few employees are looking for long-term relationships with one company. Consequently, promotions usually happen between companies and they take far less time than they used to. To speed up the process, invest constantly in your own education. Learn new skills, go to relevant conferences, and even join a professional organization that helps its members advance and succeed in their careers. If your company offers professional development resources, don’t be shy to use them. Today, knowledge is indeed power. The more you know, the more chances you’ll get.

The New Rules Of Work Pdf Free Download 2018

Final notes

“The New Rules of Work,” as correctly described by its authors, is both an extension of the philosophy of their online career platform, the Muse, and a practical playbook for navigating the new world of work. To paraphrase bestselling author Adam Grant, just like TheMuse.com has become the online go-to resource for career advice, this “user-friendly guide” should become its equivalent in a book format. A must-read for anyone who feels a little lost on their career path.

The New Rules Of Work Pdf Free Download Free

12min tip

It has never been easier to follow your dreams than today. So, don’t get stuck in a career you don’t want. Use the numerous tools and resources freely available to everybody to find your own, unique path. You only live once.